Part I: Translation (90points)
A. Translate thefollowing into Chinese
Work thereforeis desirable, first and foremost, as a preventive of boredom, for the foredoomthat a man feels when he is doing necessary though uninteresting work is asnothing in comparison with the boredom that he feels when he has nothing to dowith his days. With this advantage of work another is associated, namely thatit makes holidays much more delicious when they come. Provided a man does nothave to work so hard as to impair his vigor, he is likely to find far more zestin his free time than an idle man could possibly find.
There wassomething awaiting us in the midst of this wild primeval forest. Suddenly, asif in a strange vision, we came to a beautiful little meadow huddled among therocks: clear water, green grass, wild flowers, the purling of brooks and theblue heaven above, a generous stream of light unimpeded by leaves.
The constructionof such a satellite is now believed to be quite realizable, its realizationbeing supported with all the achievements of contemporary science, which havebrought into being not only materials capable of withstanding severe stressesinvolved and high temperatures developed, but new technological processes aswell.
B. Translate thefollowing into English
The moon shedsher liquid light silently over the leaves and flowers, which, in the floatingtransparency of a bluish haze from the pond, look as if they had just beenbathed in milk, or like a dream wrapped in a gauzy hood. Although it is a fullmoon, shining through a film of clouds, the light is not at its brightest; itis, however, just right for me -a profound sleep is indispensable, vet asnatched doze also has a savor of its own. The moonlight is not spread evenlyover the pond, but rather in a harmonious rhythm of light and shade, like a famousmelody played on a violin.
We must create aharmonious international situation in which every country can make their choicesfreely and common ground is guaranteed while differences reserved. There areabout 200 countries in the world which are different from each other in termsof social system, value, developmental level, historical tradition andreligious culture. According to their own national conditions and the will oftheir people, social system and development path is the sovereignty of allpeoples and other countries have no rights to interfere. Each country andnation having its own characteristics and advantages, we have to respect eachother, seek common ground while reserving differences, live in harmony, andpromote each other if we want to create a colorful world.
I was originallya commoner, tilling my land in Nanyang, trying merely to survive in thetroublous times, and not seeking to be known to the nobility. The late Emperor,disregarding my humble birth and low position, condescended to pay me threevisits in my thatched cottage, consulting me on contemporary issues. I wastherefore very grateful to him and promised him my whole-hearted service.
Part II: Writing (60points)
Read the followingpassage and write a summary of no less than 200 words.
Most culturesthat have formal educational systems teach much the same content—reading,mathematics, writing, and so forth—but educational differences can be found inwhat a culture emphasizes and how the content is taught. Although the teachingof history is common to all cultures, the history the culture emphasizes is itsown. For the United States, the history of the Industrial Revolution might betaught. In Mexico, the focus could be on the impact of Spanish invasion on thatcountry. Likewise, the teaching of language is common to all cultures, but thelanguage emphasized is its own. By teaching a culture’s history and language toschool children, a society is reinforcing its value, beliefs, and prejudices.Each culture, whether consciously or unconsciously, tends to glorify itshistorical, scientific, and artistic accomplishments and to minimize theaccomplishments of other cultures. In this way, schools in all cultures,whether they intend to or not teach ethnocentrism. For instance, the next timeyou look at a world map, notice that the United States is prominently locatedin the center—unless, of course, you are looking at a Chinese or Russian map.Many students in the United States, if asked to identify the great books of theworld, would likely produce a list of books by Western, white, male authors.This attitude of subtle ethnocentrism, or the reinforcing of the values,beliefs, and prejudices of the culture, is not a uniquely American phenomenon.Studying only the Koran in Iranian schools or only the Old Testament in Israeliclassrooms is also a quiet form of ethnocentrism.
In as much ascultures vary in what they emphasize, you should not be surprised to learn thatthere is cultural diversity in how students participate in the learningprocess. In some cultures, teachers talk or lecture a great deal of the time,whereas in others students do most of the talking. Silence and minimal vocalparticipation characterize some classrooms, whereas others tend to be noisy andactive. In many cultures, students recite and then write down what theirteacher has said rather than using individual textbooks. This is particularlytrue in countries where the economy does not permit the luxury of textbooks.Also, the authority vested in the teacher varies from culture to culture. Evennonverbal aspects such as space, distance, time, and dress codes are culturalvariables in the classroom.
As we examinethe specific aspects of what and how cultures teach, it will, of course, beimpossible to include every cultural educational system. Fortunately, we neednot cover them all in order to make our point: culture influences education. Tothis end, we explore the educational systems of Korea and Japan to see what andhow cultures teach. Throughout these examples, the influence of culture on thelearning process, as well as the values and beliefs of the society, will beevident.
In Korea, allschools follow the same program of study. The curriculum content is determinedby the Ministry of Education. There are few electives in middle schools andhigh schools, and variations are tailored to the type of school a studentattends. Schools take a variety of forms. There are general schools, vocationalschools, or specialized schools, and assignment is based on regionalexamination and lottery. Reading and writing are highly emphasized, andchildren learn both Korean and Chinese in elementary school. Although childrenmust learn approximately 1,600 Chinese characters to be able to comprehend adaily newspaper, Koreans believe that it is a sign of a well-educated person tobe able to use Chinese characters. English, as well as an additional foreignlanguage, is required in middle school and high school. Writing emphasizespenmanship rather than composition, and students are encouraged to imitateclassical works rather than initiate their own original creations.
In addition tostandard subjects, Korean schools emphasize moral education. Thus, socialvalues, civic awareness and duty, and academic preparation are all integralparts of the educational program. Teachers are expected to assume leadership inthese areas, and parents hold teachers responsible for disciplining theirchildren. Because of this reliance on teachers for discipline, children areoften warned by their parents that their teachers will be notified if theymisbehave at home. In Korea, students remain in their homerooms for mostsubjects, and teachers rotate among classes, In this way, the teacher is the socialand academic counselor who can easily deal with discipline problems. Groupsolidarity and conformity are both goals of the Korean educational system.These goals are achieved by having students take all of their classes togetherand by requiring that all students wear badges and uniforms. Other rulesaddressing appearance, such as hair length for boys and no makeup for girls,are strictly enforced even on the way to and from school.
Korean studentsengage in several typical classroom behaviors. They typically show respect byavoiding eye contact, bowing, and not initiating conversation with an elder.Formal vocabulary is used to speak to the teacher, who is called seon-saeng-nim(teacher) rather than by name. Students avoid open disagreements with the teacher,deferring to his or her judgment. When they do not understand, they avoidinsulting the teacher by nodding politely and attributing their lack ofunderstanding to their own lack of diligence. Korean students prefer to remainsilent rather than offer a mistaken answer that would insult the teacher andembarrass the student. Finally, Korean students hesitate to express personalopinions unless they are faced with unfairness, dishonesty, or immoralbehavior.
Education inJapan is relatively homogeneous and set by a national standardized curriculumthat emphasizes social studies, democratic political processes, and religioustolerance. Reading is also emphasized, and students become avid readers ofnonfiction subjects such as sports, nature, history, crafts, and music.‘Writing skills are enhanced by answering assigned questions and through sakubun—creativecomposition and letter writing. Calligraphy, done with a bamboo brush and blackink, issued on formal occasions, so to be graceful in society, it is importantto have a minimal level of this skill. Instruction in calligraphy also becomestraining in two important Japanese values: self-discipline and meditation.English is a compulsory subject from junior high to high school. Students beginwith the Roman alphabet and progress to the reading of classical excerpts fromDickens and Shakespeare. Although reading, writing, and mathematics areemphasized, oral language is not.
Educators inJapanese schools do not overtly concern themselves with oral language developmentin the curriculum…Reticence is valued in the presence of elders and superiorsin Japanese culture, and the school complements the home in imbuing this valuein youngsters. Furthermore, even when it is one’s prerogative to speak, simpleand brief remarks are valued over lengthy or pointed statements. Traditionalfairy tales concerning “The Monkey and the Crab” show the smooth-talking crabto be quite a disreputable character. Japanese will point out that their nationhas never produced a great orator or even a notable historical speech.
This lack ofpractice in oral skills often causes Japanese students to experience seriousproblems when they attend school in the United States.
Prestige inJapan is determined almost entirely by education. This has led to a system thatis intensely competitive, but nonetheless fosters group solidarity andcollaboration—two important values in Japanese culture. This strong collectivevalue is reflected in the Japanese proverb that states, “A single arrow isbroken, but not in a bunch.” Schools, as we have noted, foster in-grouporientation. Junior high and high school students stay together for mostsubject classes, and teachers rotate among classes. School identification isshown in kindergarten by the wearing of matching smocks, in elementary schoolby identification badges, and in junior high and high school by the wearing ofuniforms. There are rules addressing appearance, behavior codes, and evenlunch.
Despite thiscollective emphasis, distinctions in individual ability are drawn very early inthe Japanese educational system, and only the most academically advancedstudents gain entrance into the most prestigious college-preparatory junior andsenior high schools, and ultimately college. To master subjects and to preparefor important entrance exams for junior high and high schools, many studentsoften attend additional private schools called juku. Classes meet everyday after school, on Saturdays, and during school vacations. This is inaddition to an extended school year of 240 days. In the course of nine years ofeducation, these additional days can add up to an extra two full yearsschooling compared to most schools in the United States.
Like Koreanparents, Japanese parents view education as the single most important factor intheir children’s future success. Families often make considerable sacrifices sothat their children can excel in their school work and pass the rigorousentrance exams. Japanese mothers, who often label themselves kyoiku mamaor education mamas, maintain close contact with their child’s teacherand are involved with every phase of the education process. They assist withhomework and ensure that their children are freed from domestic andrecreational activities so that they have plenty of time to study.
Education is ahigh national priority because the Japanese believe that the best way to ensuretheir future is to develop their most valued natural resource—their people.Because of this value placed on education, the Japanese have a correspondinglyhigh regard for educators. Teachers have a reciprocal responsibility to thecommunity. Because they are esteemed as role models, they are expected to becorrect in their behavior at all times. Japanese teachers consciously refrainfrom behaviors that might be labeled marginal by the traditional Japaneseculture, such as visiting coffee shops or playing pachinko in the amusementhalls.
Although formaleducation systems are similar in teaching content, yet the culture emphasizesand the way that knowledge is taught are different from one country to another.That is because of the existence of ethnocentrism whether those countries areaware of it or not. Like culture emphasizes are various, the ways that studentsparticipate in the learning process also vary. In some countries, students aresilent and seldom do they take part in the class, while in some countries,students are noisy and active. Reasons for this are many such as difference inthe investments to the classroom.
Since we havealready known that culture influences education, we are going to take educationin Japan and Korea as examples to demonstrate this. In Korea, what is taught byschools is determined by the Ministry of Education and schools have fewelectives. There are different kinds of schools in this country. All schoolsput more emphases on reading and writing. Besides, schools in Korea mainlyfocus on moral education. Parents rely on teachers to discipline their childrenand students give their teachers so many respects to their teachers that theyseldom express personal opinions unless they are faced with unfairness,dishonesty, or immoral behavior. While in Japan, education is relativelyhomogeneous and social studies, democratic political processes, and religioustolerance are important parts in education. Reading and calligraphy are ofgreat importance in Japan. Reticence is a precious value for students and manystudents have difficulties in expressing themselves. What’s more, Japan’seducation attaches great importance on both collective quality such assolidarity and collaboration and individual ability. There are alsosimilarities between educations of the two countries. Parents all vieweducation as the single most important factor in their children’s futuresuccess. Japanese even believe education is the best way to explore their most valuableresource, that is, people.