[电子书]南京航空航天大学842翻译与写作英语历年考研真题答案详解

南京航空航天大学842翻译与写作英语历年考研真题答案详解
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2004年南京航空航天大学人文与社会科学学院442翻译与写作(英语)考研真题及详解

Part I: Translation (90points)

A. Translate thefollowing into Chinese

(1)

Work thereforeis desirable, first and foremost, as a preventive of boredom, for the foredoomthat a man feels when he is doing necessary though uninteresting work is asnothing in comparison with the boredom that he feels when he has nothing to dowith his days. With this advantage of work another is associated, namely thatit makes holidays much more delicious when they come. Provided a man does nothave to work so hard as to impair his vigor, he is likely to find far more zestin his free time than an idle man could possibly find.

【参考译文】

因此人们愿意工作,首先因为工作可防止产生无聊感。比起终日无所事事而造成的无聊来,人们在干着虽必要但缺乏兴趣的工作时所感到的枯燥无聊就不值一提了。与工作的这一好处相关的还有一个好处,那就是假日到来会令人感到更加美妙。只要一个人的工作不至于累得他体力不支,那么他就会从他的闲暇时间里得到无所事事的人绝对得不到的极大乐趣。

(2)

There wassomething awaiting us in the midst of this wild primeval forest. Suddenly, asif in a strange vision, we came to a beautiful little meadow huddled among therocks: clear water, green grass, wild flowers, the purling of brooks and theblue heaven above, a generous stream of light unimpeded by leaves.

【参考译文】

这片原始森林中有什么正在等着我们。突然,像是幻觉一样,我们来到了一片美丽的草地面前,这片草地面积较小,蜷缩在岩石之间。清澈的流水,碧绿的草坪,美丽的野花,潺潺的溪流,头顶上方蓝蓝的天空,还有肆意穿过叶子的光线形成了一幅美丽的画卷。

(3)

The constructionof such a satellite is now believed to be quite realizable, its realizationbeing supported with all the achievements of contemporary science, which havebrought into being not only materials capable of withstanding severe stressesinvolved and high temperatures developed, but new technological processes aswell.

【参考译文】

现代科学的成就不仅让我们可以制造出承受高温高压的材料,而且还提供了新的技术过程。因而人们完全相信可以制造出这种人造卫星。

B. Translate thefollowing into English

(1)

月光如流水一般,静静地泻在这一片叶子和花上。薄薄的轻雾浮起在荷(lotus)塘里。叶子和花仿佛在牛乳中洗过一样,又像笼着轻纱的梦。虽然是满月,天上却有一层淡淡的云,所以不能朗照;但我以为这恰是到了好处——酣眠固不可少,小睡也别有风味的。塘中的色并不均匀;但光与影有着和谐的旋律,如小提琴奏着的名曲。

【参考译文】

The moon shedsher liquid light silently over the leaves and flowers, which, in the floatingtransparency of a bluish haze from the pond, look as if they had just beenbathed in milk, or like a dream wrapped in a gauzy hood. Although it is a fullmoon, shining through a film of clouds, the light is not at its brightest; itis, however, just right for me -a profound sleep is indispensable, vet asnatched doze also has a savor of its own. The moonlight is not spread evenlyover the pond, but rather in a harmonious rhythm of light and shade, like a famousmelody played on a violin.

(2)

我们要促成自主选择、求同存异的国际和谐局面。世界上约有200个国家,在社会制度、价值观念、发展水平。历史传统和宗教文化上互不相同。根据本国国情和人民的意愿,选择社会制度和发展道路,是各国人民的主权,别国无权干涉。每个国家和民族都有其特点和优势,我们只有通过彼此尊重,求同存异,和睦共处,相互促进,才能创造一个百花争艳.绚丽多彩的世界。

【参考译文】

We must create aharmonious international situation in which every country can make their choicesfreely and common ground is guaranteed while differences reserved. There areabout 200 countries in the world which are different from each other in termsof social system, value, developmental level, historical tradition andreligious culture. According to their own national conditions and the will oftheir people, social system and development path is the sovereignty of allpeoples and other countries have no rights to interfere. Each country andnation having its own characteristics and advantages, we have to respect eachother, seek common ground while reserving differences, live in harmony, andpromote each other if we want to create a colorful world.

(3)

臣本布衣,躬耕于南阳,苟全性命于乱世,不求闻达于诸侯。先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顾臣于草庐之中,咨臣以当世之事,由是感激,遂许先帝以驱驰。

【参考译文】

I was originallya commoner, tilling my land in Nanyang, trying merely to survive in thetroublous times, and not seeking to be known to the nobility. The late Emperor,disregarding my humble birth and low position, condescended to pay me threevisits in my thatched cottage, consulting me on contemporary issues. I wastherefore very grateful to him and promised him my whole-hearted service.

Part II: Writing (60points)

Read the followingpassage and write a summary of no less than 200 words.

Most culturesthat have formal educational systems teach much the same content—reading,mathematics, writing, and so forth—but educational differences can be found inwhat a culture emphasizes and how the content is taught. Although the teachingof history is common to all cultures, the history the culture emphasizes is itsown. For the United States, the history of the Industrial Revolution might betaught. In Mexico, the focus could be on the impact of Spanish invasion on thatcountry. Likewise, the teaching of language is common to all cultures, but thelanguage emphasized is its own. By teaching a culture’s history and language toschool children, a society is reinforcing its value, beliefs, and prejudices.Each culture, whether consciously or unconsciously, tends to glorify itshistorical, scientific, and artistic accomplishments and to minimize theaccomplishments of other cultures. In this way, schools in all cultures,whether they intend to or not teach ethnocentrism. For instance, the next timeyou look at a world map, notice that the United States is prominently locatedin the center—unless, of course, you are looking at a Chinese or Russian map.Many students in the United States, if asked to identify the great books of theworld, would likely produce a list of books by Western, white, male authors.This attitude of subtle ethnocentrism, or the reinforcing of the values,beliefs, and prejudices of the culture, is not a uniquely American phenomenon.Studying only the Koran in Iranian schools or only the Old Testament in Israeliclassrooms is also a quiet form of ethnocentrism.

In as much ascultures vary in what they emphasize, you should not be surprised to learn thatthere is cultural diversity in how students participate in the learningprocess. In some cultures, teachers talk or lecture a great deal of the time,whereas in others students do most of the talking. Silence and minimal vocalparticipation characterize some classrooms, whereas others tend to be noisy andactive. In many cultures, students recite and then write down what theirteacher has said rather than using individual textbooks. This is particularlytrue in countries where the economy does not permit the luxury of textbooks.Also, the authority vested in the teacher varies from culture to culture. Evennonverbal aspects such as space, distance, time, and dress codes are culturalvariables in the classroom.

As we examinethe specific aspects of what and how cultures teach, it will, of course, beimpossible to include every cultural educational system. Fortunately, we neednot cover them all in order to make our point: culture influences education. Tothis end, we explore the educational systems of Korea and Japan to see what andhow cultures teach. Throughout these examples, the influence of culture on thelearning process, as well as the values and beliefs of the society, will beevident.

In Korea, allschools follow the same program of study. The curriculum content is determinedby the Ministry of Education. There are few electives in middle schools andhigh schools, and variations are tailored to the type of school a studentattends. Schools take a variety of forms. There are general schools, vocationalschools, or specialized schools, and assignment is based on regionalexamination and lottery. Reading and writing are highly emphasized, andchildren learn both Korean and Chinese in elementary school. Although childrenmust learn approximately 1,600 Chinese characters to be able to comprehend adaily newspaper, Koreans believe that it is a sign of a well-educated person tobe able to use Chinese characters. English, as well as an additional foreignlanguage, is required in middle school and high school. Writing emphasizespenmanship rather than composition, and students are encouraged to imitateclassical works rather than initiate their own original creations.

In addition tostandard subjects, Korean schools emphasize moral education. Thus, socialvalues, civic awareness and duty, and academic preparation are all integralparts of the educational program. Teachers are expected to assume leadership inthese areas, and parents hold teachers responsible for disciplining theirchildren. Because of this reliance on teachers for discipline, children areoften warned by their parents that their teachers will be notified if theymisbehave at home. In Korea, students remain in their homerooms for mostsubjects, and teachers rotate among classes, In this way, the teacher is the socialand academic counselor who can easily deal with discipline problems. Groupsolidarity and conformity are both goals of the Korean educational system.These goals are achieved by having students take all of their classes togetherand by requiring that all students wear badges and uniforms. Other rulesaddressing appearance, such as hair length for boys and no makeup for girls,are strictly enforced even on the way to and from school.

Korean studentsengage in several typical classroom behaviors. They typically show respect byavoiding eye contact, bowing, and not initiating conversation with an elder.Formal vocabulary is used to speak to the teacher, who is called seon-saeng-nim(teacher) rather than by name. Students avoid open disagreements with the teacher,deferring to his or her judgment. When they do not understand, they avoidinsulting the teacher by nodding politely and attributing their lack ofunderstanding to their own lack of diligence. Korean students prefer to remainsilent rather than offer a mistaken answer that would insult the teacher andembarrass the student. Finally, Korean students hesitate to express personalopinions unless they are faced with unfairness, dishonesty, or immoralbehavior.

Education inJapan is relatively homogeneous and set by a national standardized curriculumthat emphasizes social studies, democratic political processes, and religioustolerance. Reading is also emphasized, and students become avid readers ofnonfiction subjects such as sports, nature, history, crafts, and music.‘Writing skills are enhanced by answering assigned questions and through sakubun—creativecomposition and letter writing. Calligraphy, done with a bamboo brush and blackink, issued on formal occasions, so to be graceful in society, it is importantto have a minimal level of this skill. Instruction in calligraphy also becomestraining in two important Japanese values: self-discipline and meditation.English is a compulsory subject from junior high to high school. Students beginwith the Roman alphabet and progress to the reading of classical excerpts fromDickens and Shakespeare. Although reading, writing, and mathematics areemphasized, oral language is not.

Educators inJapanese schools do not overtly concern themselves with oral language developmentin the curriculum…Reticence is valued in the presence of elders and superiorsin Japanese culture, and the school complements the home in imbuing this valuein youngsters. Furthermore, even when it is one’s prerogative to speak, simpleand brief remarks are valued over lengthy or pointed statements. Traditionalfairy tales concerning “The Monkey and the Crab” show the smooth-talking crabto be quite a disreputable character. Japanese will point out that their nationhas never produced a great orator or even a notable historical speech.

This lack ofpractice in oral skills often causes Japanese students to experience seriousproblems when they attend school in the United States.

Prestige inJapan is determined almost entirely by education. This has led to a system thatis intensely competitive, but nonetheless fosters group solidarity andcollaboration—two important values in Japanese culture. This strong collectivevalue is reflected in the Japanese proverb that states, “A single arrow isbroken, but not in a bunch.” Schools, as we have noted, foster in-grouporientation. Junior high and high school students stay together for mostsubject classes, and teachers rotate among classes. School identification isshown in kindergarten by the wearing of matching smocks, in elementary schoolby identification badges, and in junior high and high school by the wearing ofuniforms. There are rules addressing appearance, behavior codes, and evenlunch.

Despite thiscollective emphasis, distinctions in individual ability are drawn very early inthe Japanese educational system, and only the most academically advancedstudents gain entrance into the most prestigious college-preparatory junior andsenior high schools, and ultimately college. To master subjects and to preparefor important entrance exams for junior high and high schools, many studentsoften attend additional private schools called juku. Classes meet everyday after school, on Saturdays, and during school vacations. This is inaddition to an extended school year of 240 days. In the course of nine years ofeducation, these additional days can add up to an extra two full yearsschooling compared to most schools in the United States.

Like Koreanparents, Japanese parents view education as the single most important factor intheir children’s future success. Families often make considerable sacrifices sothat their children can excel in their school work and pass the rigorousentrance exams. Japanese mothers, who often label themselves kyoiku mamaor education mamas, maintain close contact with their child’s teacherand are involved with every phase of the education process. They assist withhomework and ensure that their children are freed from domestic andrecreational activities so that they have plenty of time to study.

Education is ahigh national priority because the Japanese believe that the best way to ensuretheir future is to develop their most valued natural resource—their people.Because of this value placed on education, the Japanese have a correspondinglyhigh regard for educators. Teachers have a reciprocal responsibility to thecommunity. Because they are esteemed as role models, they are expected to becorrect in their behavior at all times. Japanese teachers consciously refrainfrom behaviors that might be labeled marginal by the traditional Japaneseculture, such as visiting coffee shops or playing pachinko in the amusementhalls.

【参考范文】

Although formaleducation systems are similar in teaching content, yet the culture emphasizesand the way that knowledge is taught are different from one country to another.That is because of the existence of ethnocentrism whether those countries areaware of it or not. Like culture emphasizes are various, the ways that studentsparticipate in the learning process also vary. In some countries, students aresilent and seldom do they take part in the class, while in some countries,students are noisy and active. Reasons for this are many such as difference inthe investments to the classroom.

Since we havealready known that culture influences education, we are going to take educationin Japan and Korea as examples to demonstrate this. In Korea, what is taught byschools is determined by the Ministry of Education and schools have fewelectives. There are different kinds of schools in this country. All schoolsput more emphases on reading and writing. Besides, schools in Korea mainlyfocus on moral education. Parents rely on teachers to discipline their childrenand students give their teachers so many respects to their teachers that theyseldom express personal opinions unless they are faced with unfairness,dishonesty, or immoral behavior. While in Japan, education is relativelyhomogeneous and social studies, democratic political processes, and religioustolerance are important parts in education. Reading and calligraphy are ofgreat importance in Japan. Reticence is a precious value for students and manystudents have difficulties in expressing themselves. What’s more, Japan’seducation attaches great importance on both collective quality such assolidarity and collaboration and individual ability. There are alsosimilarities between educations of the two countries. Parents all vieweducation as the single most important factor in their children’s futuresuccess. Japanese even believe education is the best way to explore their most valuableresource, that is, people.

【解析】

文章第一段讲述了不同国家的文化不同,故教育的方式与内容都相差甚远,这是因为民族中心论的存在。而且学生们学习的方式也不一样,造成这种现象的原因有很多,不同国家对课堂的投资不同是原因之一。第二段用日本和朝鲜半岛的教育来说明文化是如何影响教育的。在朝鲜半岛,学校有很多种,但是学校的教学内容都差不多。学生们主要锻炼自己的阅读和写作能力。道德教育很重要,学生们非常尊重老师,几乎不会和老师顶嘴。日本的教育相对来说比较均匀。阅读和书法练习对日本人来说比较重要。日本的学生比较沉默寡言,出国时表达甚至有障碍。两国的相同之处就是都很重视教育,日本人将教育看作是培养人才的主要方式。