[电子书]吴伟仁美国文学史及选读教材课后习题答案详解复习题库考研模拟试题

吴伟仁美国文学史及选读教材课后习题答案详解复习题库考研模拟试题
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第一部分 章节题库(含名校考研真题)

第一章 殖民地时期的美国文学

填空题

1.The term “Puritan” was applied to thosesettlers who originally were devout members of the Church of ______.

【答案】England查看答案

【解析】清教徒(Puritan),是指要求清除英国国教Church of England中天主教残余的改革派。其字词于16世纪60年代开始使用,源于拉丁文的Purus,意为“清洁”。

2.The most enduring shaping influence inAmerican thought and American literature was ______.

【答案】American Puritanism查看答案

【解析】美国文化源于清教文化,由清教徒移民时传入北美。美国主流价值观都可以追溯到殖民地时期一统天下的清教主义,并且清教思想对美国文学有着根深蒂固的影响。

3.Hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety, these were the ______values that dominated much of the early American writing.

【答案】Puritan查看答案

【解析】清教主义,起源于英国,在北美殖民地得以实践与发展。清教徒强调艰苦奋斗、勤俭节约、虔诚和淡泊。这些价值观也影响了早期的美国文学。

4.Many Puritans wrote verse, but the works of two writers, AnneBradstreet and ______, rose to the level of real poetry.

【答案】Edward Taylor查看答案

【解析】美国殖民时期最著名的诗人是安·布莱德斯特和爱德华·泰勒。

5.The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America is a collectionof poems composed by ______.

【答案】Anne Bradstreet查看答案

【解析】安·布莱德斯特律是美国殖民时期著名的诗人。其代表作是诗集《最近在北美出现的第十位缪斯》(The Tenth Muse Late Sprung up in America)。

6.The Puritan philosophy known as ______ was important in NewEngland during colonial time, and had a profound influence on the earlyAmerican mind for several generations.

【答案】Puritanism查看答案

【解析】清教主义,起源于英国,在北美殖民地得以实践与发展。清教徒构成了当时北美移民的主体,在新英格兰北部更是清一色的清教徒。清教主义奠定了美国社会的基础,塑造了美国人的性格,从各个方面影响着美国社会。

7.Bradford used a word “______” to describe the community ofbelievers who sailed from Southampton England, on the Mayflower and settled inPlymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620.

【答案】Pilgrims查看答案

8.Bradford’s work consists of two books. The first book deals withthe persecutions of the Separatists in Scrooby, England, the second bookdescribes the signing of the “______ Compact”.

【答案】Mayflower查看答案

9.Many Puritans wrote verse, but the work of two writers, AnneBradstreet and Edward ______, rose to the level of real poetry.

【答案】Taylor查看答案

10.Hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety, these were the ______ valuesthat dominated much of the early American writing.

【答案】Puritan查看答案

11.Before his death, Jonathan ______ hadgained a position as America’s first systematic philosopher.

【答案】Edwards查看答案

12.Among the members of the small band of Jamestown settlers was______, an English soldier of fortune, whose reports of exploration, publishedin the early 1600s, have been described as the first distinct Americanliterature written in English.

【答案】Captain John Smith查看答案

【解析】约翰·史密斯上校(1580.1-1631.6.21)因在北美弗吉尼亚州建立了英国第一个永久殖民地詹姆斯敦而扬名天下。他的《关于弗吉尼亚的真实叙述》(A True Relation of Virginia)则是美国文学的“第一书”,其实也是整个美国历史的“第一书”。

13.______ College was established in 1636,with a printing press set up nearly in 1639.

【答案】Harvard查看答案

【解析】1636年100多名曾在牛津和剑桥大学受过古典式的高等教育的清教徒,在马萨诸塞州的查尔斯河畔建立了美国历史上第一所学府——哈佛学院。

14.______ was a famous explorer andcolonist. He established Jamestown.

【答案】Captain John Smith查看答案

【解析】约翰·史密斯上校(1580.1-1631.6.21),新英格兰的舰队司令,是英国军人,探险家和作家。他因在北美弗吉尼亚州建立了英国第一个永久殖民地詹姆斯敦而扬名天下。

15.The General History of Virginia contains Smith’s mostfamous tale of how the Indian princess named ______ saved him from the wrath ofher father.

【答案】Pocahontas查看答案

【解析】约翰·史密斯在《弗吉尼亚通史》中讲述了他与印第安公主波卡虹塔斯(Pocahontas)之间的故事。公元1608年史密斯与当地印第安部落的一位叫波瓦坦的酋长谈判,这位酋长年轻的女儿波卡虹塔斯挽救了史密斯船长的性命。

16.William Bradford himself used a word “______” to describe thecommunity of believers who sailed from Southampton, England, on the Mayflowerand settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620.

【答案】Pilgrims查看答案

【解析】威廉姆·布拉德福德是普利茅斯的首任总督。1620年他率领100多名英国移民乘坐“五月花号”大帆船到达北美的普利茅斯。他把其率领的信徒称为朝圣者(pilgrims)

17.In 1620, ______ was elected Governor ofPlymouth, Massachusetts.

【答案】William Bradford查看答案

【解析】1620年威廉姆·布拉德福德被推选为马萨诸塞普利茅斯的首任总督。

18.The History of New England is apriceless gift left us by ______.

【答案】John Winthrop查看答案

【解析】约翰·温思罗普(John Winthrop)(1588-1649),美国殖民地领导人,马萨诸塞湾清教徒总督。他著名的作品是《新英格兰史》(The History of NewEngland)

选择题

1.American Colonial literature is longer than any otherliterary period, which started when the first settlers kept diaries and sermonsand developed till ______.(北二外2010研)

A. the mid of 18th C

B. early 17th C

C. the end of 17th C

D. the end of 18th C

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】美国殖民时期文学历经两个世纪,从17世纪初到18世纪末。

2.Early in ______, the English settlements in Virginia andMassachusetts started the main stream of the American national history.(北二外2007研)

A. 14th century

B. 15th century

C. 17th century

D. 16th century

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】17世纪初,英国人在弗吉尼亚和马萨诸塞定居,这也是美国历史的开端。

3.The first permanent English settlementin North America was established at ______.(北二外2009研)

A. Jamestown

B. New York

C. Boston

D. Concord

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】詹姆斯敦是英国人在北美的第一个永久定居地。

4.The first settlers who became the founding fathers of theAmerican nation were quite a few of them ______.(北二外2008研)

A. Quakers.

B. Anglicans

C. Catholics

D. Puritans.

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】早期来到北美的殖民者有不少是清教徒,因而殖民时期的文学深受清教思想影响。

5.It is a critical commonplace now thatAmerican literature is based on a myth, that is, ______.(北二外2008研)

A. the ancientGreek myth of Zeus

B. the Britishmyth of the Saint Grail

C. the Biblicalmyth of the Garden of Eden

D. the legend ofthe Sleepy Hollow

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】由于深受清教主义的影响,美国文学——至少是美国的白人文学——是建立在《圣经》伊甸园神话基础上的文学。

6.The common thread throughout Americanliterature has been the emphasis on the ______.

A. Revolutionism

B. Reason

C. Individualism

D. Rationalism

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】美国价值观的核心是个人主义,因而,个人主义也成为贯穿美国文学史的主线。

7.The ship “_____” carried about one hundred Pilgrims and took 66days to beat its way across the Atlantic. In December of 1620, it put thePilgrims ashore at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

A. Sunflower

B. Armada

C. Mayflower

D. Titanic

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】1920年100多名清教徒前辈乘坐“五月花”号船到达美国马萨诸塞州的普利茅斯。

8.What style did the seventeenth century American poets adapt tothe subject matter confronted in a strangely new environment?

A. The style oftheir own.

B. The stylemixed with English and American elements.

C. The stylemixed with native-American and British tradition.

D. The style ofestablished European poets.

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】17世纪美国诗人大多沿袭英国诗歌的风格。

9.Anne Bradstreet was a Puritan poet. Her poems made such a stir inEngland that she became known as the ______ who appeared in America.

A. Ninth Muse

B. Tenth Muse

C. Best Muse

D. First Muse

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】安·布拉德斯特里特被誉为“美国出现的第十个缪斯”。

10.______ was a civil covenant designed toallow the temporal state to serve the godly citizen.

A. The earlyhistory of Plymouth Colony

B. The MagnaliaChristi America

C. MayflowerCompact

D. Freedom ofthe Will

【答案】C查看答案

11.In 1620 a number of Puritans came to settle in ______.

A. Virginia

B. Georgia

C. Maryland

D. Massachusetts

【答案】D查看答案

12.In the early 19th century American moral values were essentiallyPuritan. Nothing has left a deeper imprint on the character of the people as a wholethan did ______.

A. Puritanism

B. Romanticism

C. Rationalism

D.Sentimentalism

【答案】A查看答案

13.Early in the seventeenth century, the English settlements in______ began the main stream of what we recognize as the American national history.

A. Virginia andPennsylvania

B.Massachusetts and New York

C. Virginia andMassachusetts

D. New York andPennsylvania

【答案】C查看答案

14.The first writings that we callAmerican were the narratives and ______ of the early settlements.

A. journals

B. poetry

C. drama

D. folklores

【答案】A查看答案

15.Among the earliest settlers in North America were Frenchmen whosettled in the Northern Colonies and along the ______ River.

A. St. Louis

B. St. Lawrence

C. Mississippi

D. Hudson

【答案】B查看答案

16.Whose reports of exploration, published in the early 1600s, havebeen regarded as the first distinct American literature written in English?

A. JohnWinthrop’s

B. John Smith’s

C. WilliamBradford’s

D. ChristopherColumbus’s

【答案】B查看答案

17.Somewhere in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean ______ deliveredhis sermon A Model of Christian Charity. It became his important work.

A. JohnWinthrop

B. MichaelWigglesworth

C. WilliamBradford

D. ThomasHooker

【答案】A查看答案

18.Who among the following translated theBible into the Indian tongue?

A. RogerWilliams

B. John Eliot

C. CottonMather

D. John Smith

【答案】A查看答案

19.The best of Puritan poets was ______, whose complete edition ofpoems appeared in 1960, more than two hundred years after his death.

A. AnneBradstreet

B. MichaelWigglesworth

C. ThomasHooker

D. EdwardTaylor

【答案】D查看答案

20.English literature in America is onlyabout more than ______ years old.

A. 500

B. 600

C. 200

D. 100

【答案】C查看答案

21.The early history of ______ Colony wasthe history of Bradford’s leadership.

A. Plymouth

B. Jamestown

C. New England

D. Mayflower

【答案】A查看答案

22.The establisher of Jamestown was thefamous explorer and colonist ______.

A. JohnWinthrop

B. John Smith

C. WilliamBradford

D. John Goodwin

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】约翰·史密斯上校(1580.1-1631.6.21)新英格兰的舰队司令,是英国军人,探险家和作家。其因在北美弗吉尼亚州建立了英国第一个永久殖民地詹姆斯敦而扬名天下。

术语解释

1.Protestants(天津外国语2007研)

Key: Protestantsrefer to those people who believe in Protestantism. Protestantism is one of thefour major divisions within Christianity. It is most closely tied to thosegroups that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century ProtestantReformation. Protestant doctrine was also known in continental Europeantraditions as Evangelical doctrine. It typically holds that Scripture is thesource of revealed truth.

2.American Puritanism(南开大学2008研;厦门大学 2011 研)

Key: The word Puritanism isoriginally used to refer to the theology advocated by a party within the Churchof England. The term Puritanism is also used in a broader sense to refer to theattitudes and values considered characteristic of the Puritans. It has beenemployed to denote a rigid moralism, or the condemnation of innocent pleasure,or religious narrowness adhered by the early New England Puritans. The AmericanPuritanism as a cultural heritage exerted great influence over American moralvalues. And this Puritan influence over American Romanticism was conspicuouslynoticeable. In addition, a preoccupation with the Calvinistic view of originalsin and the mystery of evil marked the works by such famous writers asHawthorne and Melville.

3.Literary Journals:

Key:

①A journal is an individual’s day-by-day account of events. Itprovides valuable details that can be supplied only by a participant or aneyewitness. As a record of personal relations, a journal reveals much about thewriter.

②While offering insights into the life of the writer, a journal isnot necessarily a reliable record of facts. The writer’s impressions may colorthe telling of events, particularly when he or she is a participant. Journalswritten for publication rather than private use are even less likely to beobjective. The European encounters with and conquest of the Americas arerecorded in the journals of the explorers.

作品分析题

1.

Questions:

(1) This is theninth of the “Contemplations” written by an early American woman writer. Whatis her name?

(2) Make a briefcomment on this short poem.

Key:

(1) AnneBradstreet.

(2) This shortpoem offers the reader an insight into the mentality of the early Puritanpioneering into a new world. When the poet, heard the grasshopper and thecricket sing, she thought of this as their praising their reator and searchedher own soul accordingly. It is evident that she saw something metaphysicalinhering in the physical, a mode of perception which was singularly Puritan.

2.

Questions:

(1) Identify thepoet of this poem.

(2) Make a briefcomment on this poem.

Key:

(1) EdwardTaylor.

(2) The poemindicates that the poet saw religious significance in a simple daily incidentlike a housewife spinning. The spinning wheel, the distaff, the flyers, thespool, the reel and the yarn have all acquired a metaphorical significance inthe symbolic, Puritan eyes of Edward Taylor.

3.Identify the poem.

Questions:

(1) This istaken from the Contemplations written by an early American woman writer.What is her name?

(2) Make a briefcomment on this short poem.

Key:

(1) AnneBradstreet.

(2) Thesestanzas, written by Anne Bradstreet, is taken from her best known and mostattractive poem, Contemplations. This short poem offers the reader aninsight into the mentality of the early Puritan pioneering in a new world. Whenshe, the poet, heard the grasshopper and the cricket sing, she thought of thisas their praising their creator and searched her own soul accordingly. It isevident that she saw something metaphysical inhering in the physical, a mode ofperception which was singularly Puritan.

4.

Questions:

(1) This is theninth of the “Contemplations” written by an early American woman writer. Whatis her name?

(2) Make a briefcomment on this short poem.

Key:

(1) AnneBradstreet.

(2) This shortpoem offers the reader an insight into the mentality of the early Puritanpioneering in a new world. When the poet, heard the grasshopper and the cricketsing, she thought of this as their praising their creator and searched her ownsoul accordingly. It is evident that she saw something metaphysical inhering inthe physical, a mode of perception which was singularly Puritan.

简答题

1.Who was Anne Bradstreet? What were herliterary achievements?

Key: Anne Bradstreet (1612~1672) isone of the most important figures in the history of American Literature. She isconsidered by many to be the first American poet, and her first collection ofpoems, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, By a Gentlewoman of ThoseParts, was the first book written by a woman to be published in the UnitedStates. Mrs. Bradstreet’s works also serves as a document of the struggles of aPuritan wife against the hardships of New England colonial life.

2.What are the basic Calvinist tenets? (国际关系学院2007研)

Key: Calvinist theology is sometimesidentified with the five points of Calvinism, also called the doctrines ofgrace. In English, The five points are sometimes referred to by the acronymTULIP, which means Total Inherited Depravity, Unconditional Election, LimitedAtonement, Irresistible Grace and Perseverance of the Saints England coloniallife.

论述题

1.What is the significance of AmericanPuritanism in American literature?

Key: The settlement of the NorthAmerican continent by the English began in the early part of the 17th century.The first settlers who became the founding fathers of the American nation werequite a few of the Puritans. They carried with them to America a code of valueswhich became what is now popularly known as American Puritanism. It was one ofthe most enduring shaping influences in American literature. To some extent, ithas become a state of mind, a part of national cultural atmosphere that theAmericans breathe.

The American Puritans were idealists, believing that the Churchshould be restored to the “Purity” and religion was a matter of primaryimportance. They accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin, totaldepravity and limited atonement. It has been a critical commonplace that theAmerican literature—or Anglo-American literature—is based on a myth, that is,the Biblical myth of the Garden of Eden. Fired with such a sense of mission,the Puritans looked at even the worst of life in the face with a tremendousamount of optimism. All this went, in due time, into the making of Americanliterature. The spirits of optimism burst out of the pages of so many Americanauthors, such as, Emerson, Whitman, etc.

Furthermore, the American Puritan’s metaphorical mode of perceptionwas chiefly instrumental in calling into being a literary symbolism which isdistinctly American. Puritan doctrine and literary practice contributed greatlyto the development of an indigenous symbolism. The ever symbolizing processbecame, in time, part of the intellectual tradition. To Hawthorne, Melville, Howellsand many others, symbolism as a technique has become a common practice. Thispeculiar mode of perception was an essential part of their upbringing.

With regard to technique, simplicity characterizes the Puritan styleof writing. The style is fresh, simple and direct; the rhetoric is plain andhonest, without a touch of nobility often traceable to the direct influence ofthe Bible. All this has left an indelible imprint on American writing.Thus American Puritanism has been, by and large, a healthy legacy to theAmericans.

2.Do you agree that in colonial Americathere was no poetry at all? Give your reason.

Key:

①The strenuous life of the pioneer left little time for cultivatingany of the arts, and the spirit of New England was too serious and too stern topermit indulgence in what was merely pleasant or beautiful. Even after thefirst critical years of danger and struggle were past, the intellectual life ofthe people was bounded by the narrow limits of religious discussion andtheological debate. That the Puritan was not without imagination, however, isabundantly proved by the forceful figures and impassioned rhetoric of the prosewriters who did only occasionally slip into rhyme. Anne Bradstreet and EdwardTaylor are such examples.

②Anne Bradstreet was a Puritan who wrote ponderous verses ofinterminable, inter-locking poems. Her poems made such a stir in England thatshe became known as the “tenth Muse” who appeared in America. Her famous “Contemplation”offers the reader an insight into the mentality of the early Puritan pioneeringin a new world.

③Edward Taylor was a meditation poet. In his splendid, exotic images,Taylor came nearest to the English baroque poets. He was, first and last, aPuritan poet, concerned about how his images  speak for God. He hasfaith in God who can save the erring, or possibly sinful, humankind from theevil designs of Hell.

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