[电子书]北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

[电子书] 北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

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内容简介

2011年北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

2012年北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

2013年北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

内容简介

本书收集了北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]20112013年的考研真题。所有真题均提供详细的答案解析,真题答案由名校高分研究生整理,解题思路清晰、答案解析准确完整。历年真题是考研复习备考最好的资料,通过研习历年考研真题,可以了解到考题难度、风格等,为考生复习备考指明了方向。

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试读(部分内容)

2011年北京交通大学语言与传播学院211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

Part I. Vocabulary and, Grammar (30 points)

Section A  Multiple Choice (20 points).

Directions: Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on your answer sheet.

1.The performance of this machine calls for much ________.

A. technology

B. science

C. technique

D. technicality

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:这台机器的性能操作需要很多技巧。technique技巧;手法。technology科技。science科学;技术。technicality学术性;专门性。

2.His strange behavior aroused the ________ of the police.

A. suspicion

B. doubt

C. disbelief

D. incredibility

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他的奇怪的行为引起了警察的怀疑。suspicion怀疑;疑心;指对某人做某事的目的、意图有怀疑。doubt对事物的真、假有怀疑。disbelief怀疑;不相信。incredibility不能相信;不可信的事物。

3.Although only of ________ intelligence, he speaks four languages fluently.

A. middle

B. minor

C. average

D. slow

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:虽然只有平均的智力水平,但他能流利地说四门语言。average平均的;普通的。middle(位置)中间的。minor次要的;较小的。slow缓慢的。

4.The house is in perfect condition, ________ a few scratches on one of the doors.

A. except

B. except for

C. without

D. but

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这所房子的情况很好,除了在一扇门上有几处刮痕。expect用于不同类之间,表示从整体排除一部分;expect用于同类之间排除。

5.He went to Australia hoping to find a teaching________ without too much difficulty.

A. work

B. career

C. post

D. employment

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:他去了澳大利亚,希望不难找到一份教学工作。post岗位;职位。work工作;不可数名词。career指经过专门训练,终身愿意从事的职业。employment指受雇于他人,领取工资以谋生计,有较固定工作的职业。这里指的是“教学岗位”,所以应选post。

6.Britain was about to ________ diplomatic relations with Libya.

A. break out

B. break into

C. break off

D. break through

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:英国准备和利比亚断绝外交关系。break off断绝(关系);断交。break out爆发。break into闯入。break through突破;突围。

7.People are always ________ him with his twin brother.

A. mistaking

B. puzzling

C. bewildering

D. confusing

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:人们经常把他和他的双胞胎兄弟搞混。confuse…with…把……和……搞混。mistake常与for搭配,表示“把……误认为”。puzzle使困惑。bewilder使迷惑;使不知所措。

8.When there was a short _______, I asked if anyone would like anything to drink.

A. blank

B. space

C. pause

D. wait

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:当会话过程中出现短暂的停顿时,我问大家有没有人要喝点什么。pause表示“短暂的停顿时间”、“间歇”、“(说话中的)停顿”、“犹豫”等。blank表示“(纸、表格等的)空白处”、“(记忆等的)空白”、“无重大事件的时期”等。space表示“空间”、“空地”、“期间”、“(词与词之间的)空白”、“篇幅”等。wait表示“等待”。

9.An almost ______ line of traffic was moving at a snail’s pace through the town.

A. constant

B. solid

C. continuous

D. continual

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:几乎连绵不断的一串车辆在以蜗牛般缓慢的速度穿过市中心。continuous意为“连续不断的,接连的”;constant意为“不断的;连续发生的”,强调事物的永恒性;solid意为“坚固的,牢靠的”;continual意为“从不间断的”。

10.Academic records from other institutions often become part of a university official file and can neither be returned to a student nor _______.

A. explicated

B. complicated

C. duplicated

D. implicated

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:别的机构的成绩记录往往变成了大学的官方档案,既没有返还给学生,也不能让学生复制。duplicate复制;重复。explicate说明,解释。complicate使复杂化;使恶化。implicate涉及;暗指。

11.Today household chores have been made much easier by electrical ______.

A. facilities

B. equipment

C. appliances

D. utilities

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:当今,家用电器使家务变得更容易。appliance(家庭用)器具,用具,装置,器械(尤指家用电器)。facility设施;设备。equipment设备,装备;器材。utility实用;效用;公共设施。

12.He ________ in court that he had seen the prisoner run out of the bank that had been robbed.

A. testified

B. witnessed

C. justified

D. identified

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他在法庭上证实他亲眼看见囚犯抢完银行后逃跑了。testify作证;证明。witness目击;证明。justify证明……是正当的;替……辩护。identify鉴定;识别,辨认出。

13.Undergraduate students have no ______ to the rare books in the school library.

A. path

B. entrance

C. way

D. access

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:本科生无法接触到学校图书馆里的珍贵书籍。have access to可以到达;可以使用;有接触(或进入、使用)的机会(或权利)。path路径。entrance入口。way方法;道路。

14.Obviously, the Chairman’s remarks at the conference were ______ and not planned.

A. substantial

B. spontaneous

C. simultaneous

D. synthetic

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:显然,主席在大会上的讲话是即兴的,不是事先计划好的。spontaneous意为“自然的;自发的;自然产生的”。substantial大量的;实质的;内容充实的。simultaneous意为“同时的;同步的”。synthetic合成的,人造的。根据not planned可知应该选spontaneous。

15.The prince ________ power on the death of his father.

A. presumed

B. assumed

C. resumed

D. consumed

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:王子在他父亲的死后掌权。assume意为“承担,就(职),控制(政权)”,assume power掌权,控制政权。presume意为“推测,假定”。resume意为“恢复,继续”。consume意为“消费,消耗”。

16.The work is not very profitable ______cash, but I am getting valuable experience from it.

A. according to

B. on the basis of

C. in terms of

D. in the light of

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:就现金收入来说,这项工作意思不大,但我能从工作中获得宝贵的经验。in terms of根据;就……来说。according to根据;按照。on the basis of在……的基础上。in the light of鉴于;按照。

17.Every material on Earth reflects, ______and absorbs electromagnetic radiation in a characteristic way.

A. transfers

B. transforms

C. transmits

D. transplants

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:地球上的每一种物质都以一种特有的方式反射、传播和吸收电磁辐射。transmit传输;传播;传达。transfer转让;转移。transform改变;变换。transplant移植;迁移。

18.I ________ because I wanted to talk with you about your mother through the night.

A. turned up

B. stayed up

C. worked up

D. stood up

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:我熬夜是因为我晚上想和你谈谈关于你母亲的事。stay up熬夜。turn up出现;发生。work up逐步建立;逐步发展。stand up站起来。

19.Wealth was less evenly ________ in the South than in the West, less money was invested in education, and the rate of illiteracy was higher.

A. distributed

B. divided

C. separated

D. spread

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:与西部相比,南方的财富分配不均衡,教育投入的资金较少,而文盲率更高。distribute分配;配给。divide分开;划分。separate分离;隔开。spread扩散;传播。

20.It is known that what ________ practically all of matter is a vast number of units of energy.

A. constitutes

B. is composed of

C. is made of

D. contains

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:众所周知,众多的能量单位中包含了几乎所有的物质。contain包含。这里指的是能量单位包含各种物质。what引导主语从句,并充当从句的主语成分。constitute组成;构成。be composed of由……组成。be made of由……组成,构成。

21.________ our efforts to save the school, the county decided to close it.

A. In spite

B. For all

C. Although

D. While

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:尽管我们尽全力去挽救这个学校,但是政府还是决定关闭它。for all尽管;虽然;相当于in spite of;后面可直接跟名词。A选项in spite of才是正确表达,后面可直接跟名词。although和while后面一般跟的是完整的句子。

22.Don’t you realize the damage these chemicals are doing ________ our environment?

A. for

B. to

C. about

D. on

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:你难道没有意识到这些化学产品给我们的环境带来的危害吗?do damage to破坏;危害;固定表达用介词to。

23.The Clarks haven’t decided yet which hotel ________.

A. to stay

B. is to stay

C. to stay at

D. is for staying

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:他们还没有决定要入住哪家酒店。本题考查常见结构:动词+疑问句+带to的不定式;其中带to的不定式做定语修饰hotel,stay用作不及物动词,常与介词at搭配,表示小的地点。陈述语序是decided to stay at which hotel。

24.We could ________ him with a detached house when he came, but he had specifically asked for a small flat.

A. provide

B. have provided

C. not provide

D. not have provided

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:当他来的时候,我们本可以给他一套独立的房子,但他特别要求要一间小公寓就行。could have done本可以……而没有;符合句意要求。

25.________ , there were no ground to justify your complaint.

A. Such was the case

B. Such would be the case

C. Such being the case

D. Such is the case

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:既然事实如此,你也就没理由为你的抱怨找借口。such being the case事实既然如此;情况就是这样;固定表达。也可看作是一个独立主格结构,such代词,是该结构的逻辑主语,用现在分词构成主系表句型结构。

26.This company has now introduced a policy ________ pay rises are related to performance at work.

A. which

B. where

C. what

D. whether

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:公司现在实行一项政策,内容是:是否涨工资由个人的工作表现决定。定语从句不缺成分,关系副词where充当从句的状语。where引导定语从句时,先行词不一定都是表示具体地点的名词,还可以是case,situation,point,policy,stage等表示抽象概念的名词,意为“在……情况下;在……状态下”等。

27.Xenon has a number of applications, ________ may be mentioned its use in flash lamps for high-speed photography.

A. among which

B. which

C. and which

D. each of which

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:氙气有多种用途,其中值得一提的是它在高速摄影闪光灯中的应用。which引导非限制性定语从句,指代先行词applications,并在从句中充当介词among的宾语。

28. 12 is to 4 ________ 3 is to 1.

A. what

B. how

C. which

D. that

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:12之于4等同于3之1。A is to B what C is to D,固定的比较句型。what表示比较关系,意为“正如;好像;等同于”。

29.You ________ Mark anything. It was none of his business.

A. needn’t tell

B. mustn’t have told

C. mustn’t tell

D. needn’t have told

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:你本不需要告诉马克任何事的,那和他没关系。needn’t have done本不需要做……却做了。根据下文可知是“已经告诉了马克”,所以选项D最符合句意要求。

30.________ no cause for alarm, the old man went back to his bedroom.

A. There was

B. Since

C. Being

D. There being

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:由于没有什么值得惊慌的理由,老人回到了他的卧室。从句主语和主句主语不一致,所以要用独立主格结构,there用作逻辑主语,与动词be存在主谓关系,所以用主动形式。there being引导的独立主格结构可以看作是原因状语。

31.You’d better look at the difficulty ________.

A. by other way

B. by the other way

C. another way

D. by another way

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:你最好用另一种方式看待困难。another way是in another way的省略形式,用作方式状语,表示“以(用)另一种方法,指三种或三种以上的方法中的一种”。其余三项搭配不正确,一般常用介词in。

32.Although a teenager, Fred could resist ________ what to do and what not to do.

A. to be told

B. having been told

C. being told

D. to have been told

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:尽管年纪很小,Fred可以拒绝被告诉什么能做,什么不能做。resist抵抗,抗拒;反对,抵制;后面要接动名词doing的形式。resist doing sth.拒绝做某事;根据句意可知Fred和tell之间构成被动关系,故使用动名词的被动形式。

33.She remembered several occasions in the past ________ she had experienced a similar feeling.

A. which

B. before

C. that

D. when

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:她记得过去有几次她经历过类似的感觉。定语从句中occasion作先行词时,关系词可以用where也可以用when,强调时间用when,强调地点用where;从句she had experienced a similar feeling缺少时间状语,故用when。

34.________ as much as one-fourth of all timber harvested is not used proved to be false.

A. The estimate

B. The estimate that

C. They are estimated

D. It is estimated that

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:多达1/4收获的木材没有被利用,这个估计被证明是错误的。本题考察同位语从句。主语为the estimate,that引导同位语从句对其进行限定说明,句子简化后就是The estimate proved to be false.

35.You won’t get a loan ________ you can offer some security.

A. lest

B. in case

C. unless

D. other than

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:除非你提供一些保证,否则你是贷不了款的。unless除非;符合句子逻辑。lest唯恐,以免。in case以防万一。other than除……之外;不同于。

36.I was to have made a speech if ________.

A. I was not called away

B. nobody would have called me away

C. I had not been called away

D. nobody called me away

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:如果我没有被人叫走的话,我会做一个演讲。由主句时态可知句子是对过去发生事实的虚拟,从句应该用had+过去分词,所以答案选C。

37.John’s score on the test is the highest in the group; he ________ last night.

A. should have studied

B. must have studied

C. has studied

D. should study

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:约翰的测试分数是小组里面最高的;他昨天晚上肯定学习了。must have done肯定已经做了某事;表示有依据,很肯定的猜测;符合句子逻辑表达。

38.It was years ________ I had visited my hometown and I was determined to enjoy my stay.

A. after

B. when

C. since

D. that

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:再次踏上故土已是多年以后,所以我决定好好享受这次暂住。本题考查固定句型:It was+ 一段时间+ since从句(从句使用过去完成时)。

39.Give it a second thought, ________ you’ll find it wise to accept the post.

A. to

B. and

C. or

D. then

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:再考虑一下,你会发现接受这一职位是明智的。and连接两个句子,表示递进关系。

40.Every man and every woman working here ________ with me.

A. is getting along well

B. are getting along well

C. is got along well

D. are got along well

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:每个在这里工作的人都和我相处得很好。由every…and every…;each…and each…;no…and no…;many a…and many a…等连接的并列主语表示单数概念,谓语动词用单数。

Section B Error Detection (10 points)

Directions: Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked A, B, C, and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on your answer sheet. (10 points)

1.Of the three students, he is by far the more diligent, for he knows why he should work hard.

A. by far

B. the more

C. should

D. hard

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】the more改为the most。句意:在这三个学生中,他是目前为止最勤奋的因为他知道自己为什么要努力工作。这里表示的是三者之间的比较,所以应该用最高级。

2.Don’t forget the words what your parents told you when you left home.

A. the words

B. what

C. told

D. left

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】what改为that或which。your parents told you是定语从句,修饰先行词words;tell sb. sth.告诉某人某事,从句缺少宾语,所以定语从句引导词应该用that 或which。

3.Some people believe that boys’ performance on tests is always better than girls. But it is not necessarily the case.

A. boys’

B. on

C. girls

D. necessarily

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】girls改为girls’。句意:一些人认为男孩在考试上的表现比女孩要好,但事实不一定如此。这里的比较对象是男孩和女孩的表现,所以应该用girls’,省略了performance。

4.If writing had never been invented, we would be living in a very narrow world, knowing little the past and still less about other peoples and nations.

A. had never been invented

B. would be living

C. knowing little

D. still less about

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】knowing little后应该加about。句意:如果没有发明书写的话,我们现在将会居住在一个非常狭隘的世界里,对过去知之甚少,对其他民族和国家就知道的更少。know little about对……知道很少,固定表达。

5.By the year 2020, this area will inhabit twice as many people as it is today.

A. By the year

B. will

C. twice

D. as many people as

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】will改为will have been inhabited。by后加表示将来时间的介词短语,在句中作时间状语,句子的谓语要用将来完成时态,表示到将来某个时间为止的动作。inhabit意为“居住于,存在于;占据,栖息”,是及物动词,其后通常接地点。如果地点做主语,要用被动语态。

6.Along with technological advances in modern medicine has come many new questions medical, legal, and social.

A. Along with

B. advances

C. has come

D. many new questions

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】has come改为have come。本句为倒装句,主语为new questions,表示复数概念,所以谓语动词要用复数形式。

7.It is important that the student begins to learn the chemical symbols immediately since they represent the basic building blocks of matter and will be used extensively in the remainder of the book.

A. begins to

B. represent

C. will be used

D. the remainder

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】begins to改为begin to。It is important that句型中一般用虚拟语气,即should+动词原形,should可以省略。

8.The baby who doesn’t get any loving will grow up coldly and unresponsive.

A. who

B. doesn’t get

C. will

D. coldly and unresponsive

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】coldly and unresponsive改为cold and unresponsive。此处应该用形容词形式表伴随。

9.Judith Francis was nothing at all like the woman Jane had expected to meet her.

A. nothing at all

B. like

C. had expected

D. meet her

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】meet her去掉her。这里Jane had expected to meet是一个定语从句,修饰先行词the woman,且定语从句省略了引导词that;省略的引导词充当meet的宾语,所以应该删掉her。

10.Not able to use a computer would hurt a graduate’s chances of finding a job as a secretary.

A. Not able to

B. hurt

C. chances

D. as a secretary

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】not able to改为not being able to。通过分析句子结构可知,A划线部分应该充当句子主语,所以要用v-ing形式。

Part II. Reading Comprehension (40 points)

Section A Multiple Choice (30 points)

Directions: In this section there are 3 reading passages followed by multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheets.

Passage A

It’s time for change; that’s a fact that all university managers know but most of them resist to admitting. Relying merely on classical management strategies does not get us very far. Old-fashioned university managers have not yet been convinced to take the risk of applying change to their well-established university; but in the extremely competitive environment of this market, they have no other choice and sooner or later they need to believe in the necessity of change and utilizing modern models of higher education. However, an unjustified delay results in significant losses, as it is evident from continuous change in the position of some universities in the world university ranking upward or downward.

This is indeed an unquestionable fact that modern university cannot be managed by traditional methods, as current students are different having new expectations, potentials, and needs. Roughly speaking, it is evident by comparing the current students with those of 80s who never experienced internet and globalization at this level. Those who have studied in 60s will remember that professors had more time for research and discussion about preliminary subjects, and PhD Students had a different position in the university environment. In fact, higher education has always been in the process of changing, but not necessarily in good direction. Since different parties are involved in university structure, their preferences sometimes caused unfavorable change; rather than effective change. Waiting for external forces inducing change to university is an example of Darwin’s natural selection (i. e. evolution); though intelligent evolution is something different. An outstanding leadership needs to foresee desirable change. People usually believe change should be limited in the framework of available budget, but the art of leadership is to conduct change based on intellectual properties, creativity, and innovation; leading to several benefits including financial one. Effective change is transformative and sustainable implemented through a united leadership strategy according to the organizational general policy. Thus, change is not limited to modernization of traditional elements, but also reviving good traditional elements lost in time.

This is a collection of ideas proposed by the author in a variety of programs, research studies, and managerial reports associated with some important issues in the realms of modern university management. There are justified programs for developing each case effectively (collected in a volume as a handbook for university leaders), though it is recommended to adapt each program according to the university unique potentials and needs. In general, it is not aimed to alter the current (successful) plans, but creating new opportunities based on the university unused and hidden potentials.

This collective paper aims to put emphasis on concepts like creativity, innovation, change, academic culture, networking, collaboration, knowledge, management, leadership, entrepreneurship, and so forth. These are just beautiful concepts, as everyone appreciates; but the problem is that few people apply them seriously and practically.

1.According to the passage, ________.

A. all university managers have accepted change.

B. classical management strategies work well today.

C. well-established universities are more reluctant to change.

D. higher education needs new models of management.

2.Compared with 80s, a main difference in today’s universities is change of________.

A. number of students

B. formation of students

C. needs of students

D. financial conditions of students

3.Darwin’s natural selection is mentioned to show________.

A. evolution is inevitable.

B. intelligent evolution is impossible.

C. external forces may not lead to favorable change.

D. internal forces can guarantee desirable change.

4.Which of the following in NOT true about an effective change?

A. It can increase budget for universities.

B. It helps foster creativity.

C. It follows the general organizational policy.

D. It has no trace of traditional management.

5.This passage is most likely to be________.

A. a report of a research study

B. a proposal for a program

C. an introduction to a book

D. a plan for the development of universities

【答案与解析】

1.D  根据文章第二段第一句“This is indeed an unquestionable fact that modern university cannot be managed by traditional methods”可知现代的大学需要新的管理方法。

2.C  文章第二段第一句还提到“current students are different having new expectations, potentials, and needs”,现在的学生有新的期望、潜能和需要;下文通过八十年代和现在的学生对比具体说明了这一点。

3.C  文章第二段提到“Waiting for external forces inducing change to university is an example of Darwin’s natural selection”,等待外部力量促使大学改变,这是达尔文自然选择的一个例子。上文则说大学里一些机构的偏好导致了不容乐观的而不是有效的变化,由此可知外部力量可能会催生不好的变化结果。

4.D  根据文章第二段最后一句“Thus, change is not limited to modernization of traditional elements, but also reviving good traditional elements lost in time”,变化不仅局限于传统元素的现代化,而且还包括恢复丢失的传统因素。由此可知D选项“有效的变化没有传统管理的痕迹”这一说法是错误的,D选项符合题意要求。

5.D  从文章最后两段的第一句话“This is a collection of ideas proposed by the author in a variety of programs, research studies, and managerial reports associated with some important issues”、“This collective paper aims to…”可以推测出本篇文章是关于大学管理方法调查的一份报告。

Passage B

Results of a global education survey today show U. S. high school students come in a dispiriting 26th out of 65 places worldwide in combined scores for math, science and reading tests.

The OECD’s Program for international Assessment (PISA) suggests that while America lags, Asia soars: Out of the top 10, eight are in the Asia-Pacific region—led by Shanghai and Hong Kong in China, Singapore, South Korea and Japan.

The rise of education in Asia is no accident. It reflects deliberate policies and long-term investments that recognize the centrality of quality education to a nation’s economic growth.

Studies on PISA data show that higher test scores in math and science are associated with higher growth rates that, in turn, lead to higher incomes. These countries understand, as former Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong has said: “A nation’s wealth in the 21st century will depend on the capacity of its people to learn.”

There is no one “Asian way” to academic success, just as not all Asian nations are equally successful. Shanghai is the leading edge in China but disparities remain within the country.

There are, however, common themes that permeate high-performing Asian school systems. These include:

●Emphasis on math and science. Math and science training begins early in primary school and rigorous courses such as biology, chemistry and physics, as well as algebra and geometry are part of a core curriculum for secondary school. Specialist teachers are often employed in elementary schools unlike “generalists” usually found in U. S. schools.

●Time and Effort. With longer school years and sometimes longer school days, Asian students often have the equivalent of several more years of schooling by the time they finish high school than the typical American student. Asian students are also expected to work hard in school, reflecting a societal belief that developing one’s skills and knowledge reflects effort more than innate ability.

Aligning education goals to economic development, Asian nations have built strong school systems by scouring the world—including the United States—for effective practices and weaving them together in ways that mesh with their cultural values.

Recognizing the fast pace of change in the world’s economic and civic environment, their focus now is on developing teachers, principals and students who are expected to have a global outlook and be “future ready.”

U. S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has said: “The simple truth is that America has a great deal to learn from the educational practices of other countries.”

Models of best practice exist all over the world, but are most noticeably increasing in Asia. And, it’s not a one-way street. Asian nations struggle with outmoded instructional practices and an over-reliance on high-pressure examinations and they continue to look to America for clues in cultivating innovation in teaching and creativity in their students.

The time has come for America to learn from—and with Asia and the world. Our ability to compete and lead in a global economy may well depend on it.

6.The underlined word “dispiriting” in paragraph 1 most likely means________

A. unbelievable

B. discouraging

C. disgusting

D. undesirable

7.According to the passage, the rise of education in Asia is due to________.

A. awareness of importance of education for economy

B. fierce competition for college entrance

C. fast development of economy

D. people’s social values

8.Higher scores in math and science________.

A. are a must for creativity.

B. are a mark of innate ability

C. are a goal of generalist teachers

D. are associated with higher incomes

9.By saying “it’s not a one-way street”, the author implies that________.

A. America has different directions to follow.

B. There are good educational models everywhere.

C. America and Asia need to learn from each other.

D. America should learn from all other countries in the world.

10.A problem in Asian education may be________

A. lack of facilities

B. lack of innovation

C. lack of cultural values

D. lack of competent teacher

【答案与解析】

6.B  文章第一段话提到“一项调查显示,在数学、科学和阅读测试的综合得分中,美国高中学生在全球65个国家中排名第26”,这个排名不尽人意,所以dispiriting的意思是“令人沮丧的;不如意的”,discouraging与之表达相近意思。

7.A  文章第三段提到“It reflects deliberate policies and long-term investments that recognize the centrality of quality education to a nation’s economic growth”,由此可知亚洲国家教育质量的提高反映的是深思熟虑的政策和长期投资,亚洲国家认识到了高质量教育对一国经济增长的重要性。

8.D  文章第四段提到“higher test scores in math and science are associated with higher growth rates that, in turn, lead to higher incomes”,在数学和科学方面更高的分数与较高的经济增长率有关,而经济增长使得人们收入水平变高,因此更高的分数与较高的收入水平有关。

9.C  根据文章倒数第二段可知:美国学习亚洲国家的教育模式;而亚洲国家也应该学习美国,培养学习的创新能力。所以it’s not a one-way street指的是“美国和亚洲国家应该借鉴学习彼此教育模式中的优点”。

10.B  文章倒数第二段提到“亚洲国家正在与过时的教学实践和过度依赖高压考试的做法作斗争,他们继续向美国寻求培养学生创新方面的教学线索”,由此可知亚洲国家的教育可能存在的问题是“缺乏创新”。

Passage C

Financial Services Authority chairman Lord Turner today defended its refusal to publish a report into what went wrong at Royal Bank of Scotland and called for new rules that would hold bankers to a higher standard of conduct than typical boardroom bosses.

While it has announced that the RBS investigation is closed, the regulator says it cannot provide further details because the Financial Services and Markets Act prevents it from doing so. The regulator, which is to be broken up by the coalition, is lobbying the government to ensure that its successor bodies have the powers to publish the findings of investigations, even if they conclude they cannot take any regulatory action.

The FSA last week blamed “bad” decisions rather than any dishonesty for the events that led to the £45bn taxpayer bailout of RBS, after commissioning PricewaterhouseCoopers to review the bank’s takeover of ABN Amro and cash call in 2008. Even so, a report has not been formally compiled by the FSA on which to base its decision not to take action against former directors including Sir Fred Goodwin.

Turner said that while the RBS bosses made “risky” decisions, they were “allowed by the rules of the time and applauded by much of the market”. He added: “They made judgments about the extent of information required to make sound decisions, which can certainly be questioned, but they did debate the issues. To some extent, therefore, they were doing what executives and boards in other sectors of the economy do: sometimes getting judgments right and sometimes wrong.”

But banking was different, he added, as banks were bailed out to avoid the collapse that might occur as a result of bad decisions at other companies. He suggested that rules, such as those in the US, demanding bankers forfeit two years’ pay if they were responsible for the bank’s collapse, could be introduced. Bankers who sat on boards of banks which collapsed could also be banned from taking a similar position at another bank.

Turner’s ideas alarmed some lawyers. “The idea that senior bankers should be subject to a retrospective blame regime of the kind that Lord Turner is advancing is misconceived,” said Simon Morris, of law firm CMS Cameron McKenna. “It would be plainly unfair to introduce a special regime in order to penalize a director of a bank-and no one else—who took objectively reasonable decisions that later turned out to be wrong.”

Turner doubted that publishing a report on RBS would reveal anything new about the FSA. “It would reveal the same deficiencies of regulatory philosophy, already identified, under which the FSA simply did not believe its remit included preventing the ABN Amro acquisition which was highly risky but breached no regulation. In future we would act differently,” he said.

11.Why did Financial Services Authority refuse to publish the report about RBS?

A. Because the case was still under investigation.

B. Because RBS had incurred a great loss.

C. Because bankers’ conduct failed to meet a higher standard.

D. Because it must obey the Financial Service and Markets Act.

12.It can be inferred that Lord Turner would like government to________.

A. allow publication of results of investigations.

B. keep findings of investigations secret.

C. take regulatory action against banks.

D. give more powers to banks.

13.The cause for the bad performance of RBS is________.

A. cheating

B. taxpayer bailout

C. bad decisions

D. lack of money

14.Lord Turner suggested that bankers________.

A. should be punished for collapse of a bank.

B. should always get judgments right.

C. should be applauded by the market.

D. should learn from other companies.

15.The attitude of Simon Morris toward Lord Turner’s suggestion is________.

A. supportive

B. uncertain

C. negative

D. neutral

【答案与解析】

11.D  文章第二段提到“the regulator says it cannot provide further details because the Financial Services and Markets Act prevents it from doing so”,监管机构表示,它无法提供更多细节,因为金融服务和市场行为法案阻止了它这么做。由此可知英国金融服务管理局拒绝发布关于苏格兰皇家银行的报告的原因是它不能违背金融服务和市场行为法案。

12.C  根据文章第一段“called for new rules that would hold bankers to a higher standard of conduct than typical boardroom bosses”,可知Turner呼吁制定新的规则,使银行家的行为标准高于典型的董事会老板。因此可以推断出Turner想让政府整顿银行秩序。

13.B  文章第三段首句提到:The FSA last week blamed “bad” decisions rather than any dishonesty for the events that led to the £45bn taxpayer bailout of RBS,由此可知苏格兰皇家银行的糟糕的表现指的是在450亿英镑的纳税人的经济救助问题上的不诚信的做法。

14.A  文章倒数第三段提到“He suggested that rules, such as those in the US, demanding bankers forfeit two years’ pay if they were responsible for the bank’s collapse, could be introduced”,Turner提出应该引入美国的做法,要求银行家们如果对银行倒闭负有责任,如果银行倒闭则银行家们就会被要求没收两年的薪酬。

15.C  根据文章倒数第二段提到的“The idea that senior bankers should be subject to a retrospective blame regime of the kind that Lord Turner is advancing is misconceived”,可知Simon Morris认为高级银行家应该服从于Turner正在推进的那种追溯性的指责机制这一想法是错误的。由misconceived一词可知Simon Morris对Turner的建议并不赞成。

Section B Answering Questions (10 points)

Directions: Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SENTENCES the questions which follow each passage. Use only information from the passage you have just read and write your answer in the corresponding space in your answer sheet.

Questions 1~2

On Election Day, the American people rejected reckless spending, runaway debt and the record growth of government. They also rejected years of establishment arrogance - found in both parties - that for too long has ignored their will.

But before the new wave of GOP lawmakers take their seats, Democratic leaders are determined to push even their most unpopular policies right up to the last minute. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid are planning to hold a vote Wednesday on the highly controversial Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act, or Dream Act, a measure that would give amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants, including those with criminal records.

I served in the Senate during the heated immigration debate of 2006 and 2007 when Americans’ overwhelming opposition to amnesty deluged Congress with letters and shut down the Capitol switchboard. Their message was clear: Don’t incentivize the lawlessness—stop it.

But rather than heed the public will, Democratic leaders in Congress are moving in the opposite direction. As many citizens plead for our immigration laws to be enforced, the Dream Act would reward and encourage their violation. Here are some of its most troubling features:

●The Dream Act would also afford some federal education benefits to illegal immigrants, including federally backed student loans and work study programs. Thus, Americans struggling to pay for their kids’ college in the midst of a recession are being asked to help subsidize benefits for the college education of those who are not even supposed to be in the country.

●Making matters worse, the bill allows illegal immigrants with fewer than three misdemeanor convictions to remain eligible for legal, permanent status, meaning amnesty is open to those who have, for example, joined gangs, been convicted of driving under the influence, engaged in fraud or even made false claims to immigration authorities.

Because the Dream Act does not expire, or impose any numerical cap, the scope of the bill’s amnesty program could be enormous. And by rewarding illegality, the legislation will incentivize even more of it and send the message that future illegal immigrants will be rewarded with amnesty as well.

When voters went to the polls on November 2, they didn’t only choose a new path. They also wrote Congress specific directions. On the matter of illegal immigration, those directions have been clear for some time: Enforce the laws on our books, complete the border fence and protect American jobs by holding employers accountable. If those-efforts are successful, we can then begin a national conversation about what to do with those Illegal immigrants who have been here for an extended time.

Instead, Democratic leaders are making a brazen push for mass amnesty. They are again defying the public will and sending the world a message that our nation is not serious about the integrity of our borders or our laws.

American citizenship is the envy of the world. But central to our nation’s greatness is our respect for the rule of law. By eroding that respect through reckless and irresponsible amnesty, we would do a disservice not only to the 300 million Americans who call this nation home, but to all those who are lawfully applying and waiting for their chance to be citizens.

1.What is Dream Act?

2.Summarize in your own words why the author of this passage is against Dream Act?

【答案与解析】

1.It is a measure that would give amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants, including those with criminal records.

(根据文章第二段最后一句话可知:梦想法案是一项对数百万非法移民包括那些有犯罪记录的非法移民大赦的措施。)

2.Because the Dream Act would benefit illegal immigrants, reward and encourage their violation, and by rewarding illegality, the legislation will incentivize even more of it and send the message that future illegal immigrants will be rewarded with amnesty as well.

Questions 3~5

Recently we have seen a large number of fairly high-profile libel cases involving scientists and doctors, including Dr Peter Wilmshurst, Dr Henrik Thomson, Dr Simon Singh, and my own.

In many of them, lawyers have been dismissive of any special pleading for science in the libel reform movement: if you want to step out and criticize, they explain, you should be aware of the implications and ready to defend your point. But in science, the assumptions and traditions are different, and with good reason. In science and medicine, criticizing each other’s ideas and practices isn’t misconduct or a special occasion: it’s exactly what you are supposed to do, all of the time, and with very good reason.

Medicine is almost unique among all human activities in that it’s possible to do enormous harm even when you set out with the absolute best of intentions, and there are many examples of this, even in mainstream healthcare. In medicine, when you make a mistake about whether something works or not, it’s possible to cause death and suffering on a genuinely biblical scale.

That’s why we have systems to try and stop us making such mistakes, and at the heart of all these lies mutual criticism: criticizing each other’s ideas and practices. This isn’t something that’s marginal, or tolerated by the profession. It’s something that is welcomed and actively encouraged more than that it’s institutionalized.

In a BBC World Service documentary out today - made with the BBC Radio science unit, rather than current affairs —we explain why science is different, and why it is dangerous to have laws that restrict the everyday scrutiny of each other’s ideas and practices that scientists and doctors necessarily engage in.

Under the current libel laws, reading about cases such as Wilmshurst’s, Thomson’s, Singh’s and my own, scientists and doctors are increasingly aware that every utterance could have bizarre and unpredictable legal consequences; that even if you’re proved right, a case may still take years of working unpaid every evening and weekend, and hundreds of thousands of pounds you cannot spare.

In science and medicine, mutual criticism has a massive societal benefit, because we all benefit from the way it makes medicine safer, but the burden of libel is shouldered entirely by individuals who are unprepared and often unprotected. You cannot reasonably expect scientists to be experts in the details of libel law as well as their own field, and you cannot reasonably expect people to constantly and unpredictably put their fatuities’ homes at stake, just for doing the job we expect of them.

In my view, as a society, we have to choose. At the moment, we expect scientists and doctors to speak out when they see problems with other peoples’ ideas and practices, and unthinkingly, not even in the melodramatic sense of a whistleblower: it’s simply the job. But with the law in its current state, doctors and scientists might be wiser simply to stop giving any view about any drug or health-related product that is marketed for commercial purposes, in any forum, and make it clear that from now on, decisions and utterances about efficacy should be made solely by the manufacturers, or only on very rare occasions, under tightly controlled circumstances and after extensive legal review.

If that’s what we want, then we should leave the law unchanged and communicate this fact clearly, to all doctors, and scientists: because we cannot expect them all to be expert defamation lawyers and we cannot expect them to shoulder the burden of a law that is expensive, long-winded, unclear, and unpredictable and could destroy you in a moment.

3.According to the author of this passage, what is essential in science and medicine?

4.Why is criticism especially important for medicine?

5.What kind of dilemma are scientists and doctors now faced with?

【答案与解析】

3.It’s essential to criticize each other’s ideas and practices with good reasons.

(从文章第二段最后一句可知:在科学和医学中,批评对方的想法和做法不是不正当的行为,也不是什么特殊的事情:这恰恰是你应该做的,一直都是,而且要很好的理由。)

4.Because in medicine, when you make a mistake about whether something works or not, it’s possible to cause death and suffering on a genuinely biblical scale.

(根据文章第三段最后一句可知:医学中之所以需要批评是因为它和生死密切相关,不允许有一丝马虎。)

5.In science and medicine, mutual criticism is beneficial and necessary but the burden of libel is shouldered entirely by individuals who are unprepared and often unprotected.

(从文章倒数第三段可知:在科学和医学中,需要科学家和医生互相指出问题,相互批评;但他们还得承担诽谤罪名及所有相关责任。)

III. Writing (30 points)

What do you want most in a friend—someone who is intelligent, or someone who has a sense of humor, or someone who is reliable? Which one of these characteristics is most important to you? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. Write a composition of about 400 words on your view of the topic.

【参考范文】

There are various qualities that make up a good friend, such as intelligence, sense of humor, reliability, just name a few. In consideration of many qualities that I want my friend to have, a sense of humor ought to come first. Note that in conforming to my preference, well, I have a strong sense of humor and I am a humor listener as well, I simply wish that humor can resonate to our daily communicating. It’s essential to have something in common with your friend, otherwise one could be unbridgeable to another, and there will be no friendship at all.

Generally speaking, I conceive a sense of humor as a sign of being attractive, so if your friend has the same quality then it will turn out to be more attractive. An attractive personality is likely to be sociable, it means that people would love to stay around having fun and feeling happy, since you create the ambience that is so much enjoyable, and thus a pretty nice impression is made. In this way, you don’t need do worry about to be left single all the time, because attractive can also mean romantic, once you know how to be romantic, you are more likely to win a love. So in order to be attractive, I would certainly love to make an attractive friend, which is an equivalent of a sense of humor as mentioned before.

To consider it deeper we found that a sense of humor can be purely artistic, it values in a particular way and has a fantastic effect. Mostly when we are in embarrassment we feel shame and hard to make a move, but when we know how to use humor instead of embarrass, the problems could be perfectly fixed. We see a lot of great politicians answering questions asked by picky journalists so properly and ingeniously that averts the irony, to have a more subtle one by a sense of humor. It’s of wise and artistic.

To sum up, I’d love to emphasize the point on how important for a friend of mine to have the sense of humor, I can learn from them in order to be like them, wise and attractive, and more basically, they are simply my kind of favorite. It’ true that with a friend who is intelligent or reliable you may have easier life, however, a friend who endows a sense of humor would let your life fraught with relaxation, hope and more freshness.

【解析】

题目要求描述自己最希望有一个什么样的朋友。作者首段明确指出希望有一个幽默的朋友;第二、三段解释了具体原因,并举例进行了说明;最后一段则做出总结“有个幽默感强的朋友能让自己也变得阳光开朗,使生活充满乐趣”。本文结构清晰,观点明确,富有逻辑性和说服力。

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