Part I. Vocabulary and,
Grammar (30 points)
Section A Multiple
Choice (20 points).
Directions: Beneath each
sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the
answer that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on your answer
1．The performance of this machine calls
for much ________.
2．His strange behavior aroused the
________ of the police.
3．Although only of ________ intelligence,
he speaks four languages fluently.
4．The house is in perfect condition,
________ a few scratches on one of the doors.
B. except for
5．He went to Australia hoping to find a
teaching________ without too much difficulty.
6．Britain was about to ________ diplomatic
relations with Libya.
A. break out
B. break into
C. break off
D. break through
【解析】句意：英国准备和利比亚断绝外交关系。break off断绝(关系)；断交。break out爆发。break into闯入。break
7．People are always ________ him with his
8．When there was a short _______, I asked
if anyone would like anything to drink.
9．An almost ______ line of traffic was
moving at a snail’s pace through the town.
10．Academic records from other institutions often become part of a
university official file and can neither be returned to a student nor _______.
11．Today household chores have been made
much easier by electrical ______.
12．He ________ in court that he had seen
the prisoner run out of the bank that had been robbed.
13．Undergraduate students have no ______
to the rare books in the school library.
【解析】句意：本科生无法接触到学校图书馆里的珍贵书籍。have access to可以到达；可以使用；有接触(或进入、使用)的机会(或权利)。path路径。entrance入口。way方法；道路。
14．Obviously, the Chairman’s remarks at
the conference were ______ and not planned.
15．The prince ________ power on the death
of his father.
16．The work is not very profitable
______cash, but I am getting valuable experience from it.
A. according to
B. on the basis
C. in terms of
D. in the light
【解析】句意：就现金收入来说，这项工作意思不大，但我能从工作中获得宝贵的经验。in terms of根据；就……来说。according to根据；按照。on the basis of在……的基础上。in the light of鉴于；按照。
17．Every material on Earth reflects,
______and absorbs electromagnetic radiation in a characteristic way.
18．I ________ because I wanted to talk
with you about your mother through the night.
A. turned up
B. stayed up
C. worked up
D. stood up
up出现；发生。work up逐步建立；逐步发展。stand up站起来。
19．Wealth was less evenly ________ in the South than in the West,
less money was invested in education, and the rate of illiteracy was higher.
20．It is known that what ________
practically all of matter is a vast number of units of energy.
B. is composed
C. is made of
【解析】句意：众所周知，众多的能量单位中包含了几乎所有的物质。contain包含。这里指的是能量单位包含各种物质。what引导主语从句，并充当从句的主语成分。constitute组成；构成。be composed of由……组成。be made of由……组成，构成。
21．________ our efforts to save the
school, the county decided to close it.
A. In spite
B. For all
【解析】句意：尽管我们尽全力去挽救这个学校，但是政府还是决定关闭它。for all尽管；虽然；相当于in spite of；后面可直接跟名词。A选项in spite of才是正确表达，后面可直接跟名词。although和while后面一般跟的是完整的句子。
22．Don’t you realize the damage these
chemicals are doing ________ our environment?
【解析】句意：你难道没有意识到这些化学产品给我们的环境带来的危害吗？do damage to破坏；危害；固定表达用介词to。
23．The Clarks haven’t decided yet which
A. to stay
B. is to stay
C. to stay at
D. is for
【解析】句意：他们还没有决定要入住哪家酒店。本题考查常见结构：动词+疑问句+带to的不定式；其中带to的不定式做定语修饰hotel，stay用作不及物动词，常与介词at搭配，表示小的地点。陈述语序是decided to stay at which
24．We could ________ him with a detached house when he came, but he
had specifically asked for a small flat.
C. not provide
D. not have
【解析】句意：当他来的时候，我们本可以给他一套独立的房子，但他特别要求要一间小公寓就行。could have done本可以……而没有；符合句意要求。
25．________ , there were no ground to
justify your complaint.
A. Such was the
B. Such would
be the case
C. Such being
D. Such is the
【解析】句意：既然事实如此，你也就没理由为你的抱怨找借口。such being the case事实既然如此；情况就是这样；固定表达。也可看作是一个独立主格结构，such代词，是该结构的逻辑主语，用现在分词构成主系表句型结构。
26．This company has now introduced a
policy ________ pay rises are related to performance at work.
27．Xenon has a number of applications, ________ may be mentioned
its use in flash lamps for high-speed photography.
A. among which
C. and which
D. each of
28． 12 is to 4 ________ 3 is to 1.
【解析】句意：12之于4等同于3之1。A is to B
what C is to D，固定的比较句型。what表示比较关系，意为“正如；好像；等同于”。
29．You ________ Mark anything. It was none
of his business.
A. needn’t tell
B. mustn’t have
C. mustn’t tell
D. needn’t have
【解析】句意：你本不需要告诉马克任何事的，那和他没关系。needn’t have done本不需要做……却做了。根据下文可知是“已经告诉了马克”，所以选项D最符合句意要求。
30．________ no cause for alarm, the old
man went back to his bedroom.
A. There was
D. There being
31．You’d better look at the difficulty
A. by other way
B. by the other
C. another way
D. by another
32．Although a teenager, Fred could resist
________ what to do and what not to do.
A. to be told
B. having been
C. being told
D. to have been
33．She remembered several occasions in the
past ________ she had experienced a similar feeling.
【解析】句意：她记得过去有几次她经历过类似的感觉。定语从句中occasion作先行词时，关系词可以用where也可以用when，强调时间用when，强调地点用where；从句she had experienced a similar feeling缺少时间状语，故用when。
34．________ as much as one-fourth of all
timber harvested is not used proved to be false.
A. The estimate
B. The estimate
C. They are
D. It is
【解析】句意：多达1/4收获的木材没有被利用，这个估计被证明是错误的。本题考察同位语从句。主语为the estimate，that引导同位语从句对其进行限定说明，句子简化后就是The estimate
proved to be false.
35．You won’t get a loan ________ you can
offer some security.
B. in case
D. other than
36．I was to have made a speech if
A. I was not
B. nobody would
have called me away
C. I had not
been called away
called me away
37．John’s score on the test is the highest
in the group; he ________ last night.
A. should have
B. must have
C. has studied
D. should study
【解析】句意：约翰的测试分数是小组里面最高的；他昨天晚上肯定学习了。must have done肯定已经做了某事；表示有依据，很肯定的猜测；符合句子逻辑表达。
38．It was years ________ I had visited my
hometown and I was determined to enjoy my stay.
【解析】句意：再次踏上故土已是多年以后，所以我决定好好享受这次暂住。本题考查固定句型：It was+ 一段时间+
39．Give it a second thought, ________
you’ll find it wise to accept the post.
40．Every man and every woman working here
________ with me.
A. is getting
B. are getting
C. is got along
D. are got
【解析】句意：每个在这里工作的人都和我相处得很好。由every…and every…；each…and each…；no…and no…；many
a…and many a…等连接的并列主语表示单数概念，谓语动词用单数。
Section B Error
Detection (10 points)
Directions: Each of the
following sentences has four underlined parts marked A, B, C, and D. Identify
the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on your answer
sheet. (10 points)
1．Of the three students, he is by far
the more diligent, for he knows why he should work hard.
A. by far
B. the more
【解析】the more改为the most。句意：在这三个学生中，他是目前为止最勤奋的因为他知道自己为什么要努力工作。这里表示的是三者之间的比较，所以应该用最高级。
2．Don’t forget the words what
your parents told you when you left home.
A. the words
【解析】what改为that或which。your parents told you是定语从句，修饰先行词words；tell sb. sth.告诉某人某事，从句缺少宾语，所以定语从句引导词应该用that 或which。
3．Some people believe that boys’
performance on tests is always better than girls. But it is not necessarily
4．If writing had never been invented, we would be living
in a very narrow world, knowing little the past and still less about
other peoples and nations.
A. had never
B. would be
D. still less
【解析】knowing little后应该加about。句意：如果没有发明书写的话，我们现在将会居住在一个非常狭隘的世界里，对过去知之甚少，对其他民族和国家就知道的更少。know little about对……知道很少，固定表达。
5．By the year 2020, this area will
inhabit twice as many people as it is today.
A. By the year
D. as many
【解析】will改为will have been inhabited。by后加表示将来时间的介词短语，在句中作时间状语，句子的谓语要用将来完成时态，表示到将来某个时间为止的动作。inhabit意为“居住于，存在于；占据，栖息”，是及物动词，其后通常接地点。如果地点做主语，要用被动语态。
6．Along with technological advances
in modern medicine has come many new questions medical, legal,
A. Along with
C. has come
D. many new
【解析】has come改为have come。本句为倒装句，主语为new questions，表示复数概念，所以谓语动词要用复数形式。
7．It is important that the student begins to learn the
chemical symbols immediately since they represent the basic building
blocks of matter and will be used extensively in the remainder of
A. begins to
C. will be used
D. the remainder
【解析】begins to改为begin to。It is important that句型中一般用虚拟语气，即should+动词原形，should可以省略。
8．The baby who doesn’t get
any loving will grow up coldly and unresponsive.
B. doesn’t get
D. coldly and
【解析】coldly and unresponsive改为cold and unresponsive。此处应该用形容词形式表伴随。
9．Judith Francis was nothing at all like
the woman Jane had expected to meet her.
A. nothing at
C. had expected
D. meet her
【解析】meet her去掉her。这里Jane had expected to meet是一个定语从句，修饰先行词the woman，且定语从句省略了引导词that；省略的引导词充当meet的宾语，所以应该删掉her。
10．Not able to use a computer would
hurt a graduate’s chances of finding a job as a secretary.
A. Not able to
D. as a
【解析】not able to改为not being able to。通过分析句子结构可知，A划线部分应该充当句子主语，所以要用v-ing形式。
Part II. Reading Comprehension
Section A Multiple
Choice (30 points)
Directions: In this
section there are 3 reading passages followed by multiple-choice questions.
Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheets.
It’s time for change;
that’s a fact that all university managers know but most of them resist to
admitting. Relying merely on classical management strategies does not get us
very far. Old-fashioned university managers have not yet been convinced to take
the risk of applying change to their well-established university; but in the
extremely competitive environment of this market, they have no other choice and
sooner or later they need to believe in the necessity of change and utilizing
modern models of higher education. However, an unjustified delay results in
significant losses, as it is evident from continuous change in the position of
some universities in the world university ranking upward or downward.
This is indeed
an unquestionable fact that modern university cannot be managed by traditional
methods, as current students are different having new expectations, potentials,
and needs. Roughly speaking, it is evident by comparing the current students
with those of 80s who never experienced internet and globalization at this
level. Those who have studied in 60s will remember that professors had more
time for research and discussion about preliminary subjects, and PhD Students
had a different position in the university environment. In fact, higher
education has always been in the process of changing, but not necessarily in
good direction. Since different parties are involved in university structure,
their preferences sometimes caused unfavorable change; rather than effective
change. Waiting for external forces inducing change to university is an example
of Darwin’s natural selection (i. e. evolution); though intelligent evolution
is something different. An outstanding leadership needs to foresee desirable
change. People usually believe change should be limited in the framework of
available budget, but the art of leadership is to conduct change based on
intellectual properties, creativity, and innovation; leading to several
benefits including financial one. Effective change is transformative and
sustainable implemented through a united leadership strategy according to the
organizational general policy. Thus, change is not limited to modernization of
traditional elements, but also reviving good traditional elements lost in time.
This is a
collection of ideas proposed by the author in a variety of programs, research
studies, and managerial reports associated with some important issues in the
realms of modern university management. There are justified programs for
developing each case effectively (collected in a volume as a handbook for
university leaders), though it is recommended to adapt each program according
to the university unique potentials and needs. In general, it is not aimed to
alter the current (successful) plans, but creating new opportunities based on
the university unused and hidden potentials.
paper aims to put emphasis on concepts like creativity, innovation, change,
academic culture, networking, collaboration, knowledge, management, leadership,
entrepreneurship, and so forth. These are just beautiful concepts, as everyone
appreciates; but the problem is that few people apply them seriously and
1．According to the passage, ________.
university managers have accepted change.
management strategies work well today.
universities are more reluctant to change.
education needs new models of management.
2．Compared with 80s, a main difference in
today’s universities is change of________.
A. number of
B. formation of
C. needs of
conditions of students
3．Darwin’s natural selection is mentioned
A. evolution is
evolution is impossible.
forces may not lead to favorable change.
forces can guarantee desirable change.
4．Which of the following in NOT true about
an effective change?
A. It can
increase budget for universities.
B. It helps
C. It follows
the general organizational policy.
D. It has no
trace of traditional management.
5．This passage is most likely to
A. a report of a
B. a proposal
for a program
introduction to a book
D. a plan for
the development of universities
1．D 根据文章第二段第一句“This is indeed an unquestionable fact that modern university cannot
be managed by traditional methods”可知现代的大学需要新的管理方法。
2．C 文章第二段第一句还提到“current students are different having new expectations, potentials,
3．C 文章第二段提到“Waiting for external forces inducing change to university is an
example of Darwin’s natural selection”，等待外部力量促使大学改变，这是达尔文自然选择的一个例子。上文则说大学里一些机构的偏好导致了不容乐观的而不是有效的变化，由此可知外部力量可能会催生不好的变化结果。
4．D 根据文章第二段最后一句“Thus, change is not limited to modernization of traditional
elements, but also reviving good traditional elements lost in time”，变化不仅局限于传统元素的现代化，而且还包括恢复丢失的传统因素。由此可知D选项“有效的变化没有传统管理的痕迹”这一说法是错误的，D选项符合题意要求。
5．D 从文章最后两段的第一句话“This is a collection of ideas proposed by the author in a variety of
programs, research studies, and managerial reports associated with some
collective paper aims to…”可以推测出本篇文章是关于大学管理方法调查的一份报告。
Results of a
global education survey today show U. S. high school students come in a
dispiriting 26th out of 65 places worldwide in combined scores for math,
science and reading tests.
Program for international Assessment (PISA) suggests that while America lags,
Asia soars: Out of the top 10, eight are in the Asia-Pacific region—led by
Shanghai and Hong Kong in China, Singapore, South Korea and Japan.
The rise of
education in Asia is no accident. It reflects deliberate policies and long-term
investments that recognize the centrality of quality education to a nation’s
Studies on PISA
data show that higher test scores in math and science are associated with
higher growth rates that, in turn, lead to higher incomes. These countries
understand, as former Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong has said: “A
nation’s wealth in the 21st century will depend on the capacity of its people
There is no one
“Asian way” to academic success, just as not all Asian nations are equally
successful. Shanghai is the leading edge in China but disparities remain within
however, common themes that permeate high-performing Asian school systems.
●Emphasis on math and science. Math and science training begins early
in primary school and rigorous courses such as biology, chemistry and physics,
as well as algebra and geometry are part of a core curriculum for secondary
school. Specialist teachers are often employed in elementary schools unlike
“generalists” usually found in U. S. schools.
●Time and Effort. With longer school years and sometimes longer
school days, Asian students often have the equivalent of several more years of
schooling by the time they finish high school than the typical American
student. Asian students are also expected to work hard in school, reflecting a
societal belief that developing one’s skills and knowledge reflects effort more
than innate ability.
education goals to economic development, Asian nations have built strong school
systems by scouring the world—including the United States—for effective
practices and weaving them together in ways that mesh with their cultural values.
fast pace of change in the world’s economic and civic environment, their focus
now is on developing teachers, principals and students who are expected to have
a global outlook and be “future ready.”
U. S. Secretary
of Education Arne Duncan has said: “The simple truth is that America has a
great deal to learn from the educational practices of other countries.”
Models of best
practice exist all over the world, but are most noticeably increasing in Asia.
And, it’s not a one-way street. Asian nations struggle with outmoded
instructional practices and an over-reliance on high-pressure examinations and
they continue to look to America for clues in cultivating innovation in
teaching and creativity in their students.
The time has
come for America to learn from—and with Asia and the world. Our ability to
compete and lead in a global economy may well depend on it.
6．The underlined word “dispiriting” in
paragraph 1 most likely means________
7．According to the passage, the rise of
education in Asia is due to________.
A. awareness of
importance of education for economy
competition for college entrance
development of economy
8．Higher scores in math and
A. are a must
B. are a mark of
C. are a goal of
associated with higher incomes
9．By saying “it’s not a one-way street”,
the author implies that________.
A. America has
different directions to follow.
B. There are
good educational models everywhere.
C. America and
Asia need to learn from each other.
should learn from all other countries in the world.
10．A problem in Asian education may
A. lack of
B. lack of
C. lack of
D. lack of
7．A 文章第三段提到“It reflects deliberate policies and long-term investments that
recognize the centrality of quality education to a nation’s economic growth”，由此可知亚洲国家教育质量的提高反映的是深思熟虑的政策和长期投资，亚洲国家认识到了高质量教育对一国经济增长的重要性。
8．D 文章第四段提到“higher test scores in math and science are associated with higher
growth rates that, in turn, lead to higher incomes”，在数学和科学方面更高的分数与较高的经济增长率有关，而经济增长使得人们收入水平变高，因此更高的分数与较高的收入水平有关。
9．C 根据文章倒数第二段可知：美国学习亚洲国家的教育模式；而亚洲国家也应该学习美国，培养学习的创新能力。所以it’s not a one-way street指的是“美国和亚洲国家应该借鉴学习彼此教育模式中的优点”。
Services Authority chairman Lord Turner today defended its refusal to publish a
report into what went wrong at Royal Bank of Scotland and called for new rules
that would hold bankers to a higher standard of conduct than typical boardroom
While it has
announced that the RBS investigation is closed, the regulator says it cannot
provide further details because the Financial Services and Markets Act prevents
it from doing so. The regulator, which is to be broken up by the coalition, is
lobbying the government to ensure that its successor bodies have the powers to
publish the findings of investigations, even if they conclude they cannot take
any regulatory action.
The FSA last
week blamed “bad” decisions rather than any dishonesty for the events that led
to the ￡45bn
taxpayer bailout of RBS, after commissioning PricewaterhouseCoopers to review
the bank’s takeover of ABN Amro and cash call in 2008. Even so, a report has
not been formally compiled by the FSA on which to base its decision not to take
action against former directors including Sir Fred Goodwin.
Turner said that
while the RBS bosses made “risky” decisions, they were “allowed by the rules of
the time and applauded by much of the market”. He added: “They made judgments
about the extent of information required to make sound decisions, which can
certainly be questioned, but they did debate the issues. To some extent,
therefore, they were doing what executives and boards in other sectors of the
economy do: sometimes getting judgments right and sometimes wrong.”
But banking was
different, he added, as banks were bailed out to avoid the collapse that might
occur as a result of bad decisions at other companies. He suggested that rules,
such as those in the US, demanding bankers forfeit two years’ pay if they were
responsible for the bank’s collapse, could be introduced. Bankers who sat on
boards of banks which collapsed could also be banned from taking a similar
position at another bank.
alarmed some lawyers. “The idea that senior bankers should be subject to a
retrospective blame regime of the kind that Lord Turner is advancing is
misconceived,” said Simon Morris, of law firm CMS Cameron McKenna. “It would be
plainly unfair to introduce a special regime in order to penalize a director of
a bank-and no one else—who took objectively reasonable decisions that later turned out to
that publishing a report on RBS would reveal anything new about the FSA. “It
would reveal the same deficiencies of regulatory philosophy, already
identified, under which the FSA simply did not believe its remit included
preventing the ABN Amro acquisition which was highly risky but breached no
regulation. In future we would act differently,” he said.
11．Why did Financial Services Authority
refuse to publish the report about RBS?
A. Because the
case was still under investigation.
B. Because RBS
had incurred a great loss.
bankers’ conduct failed to meet a higher standard.
D. Because it
must obey the Financial Service and Markets Act.
12．It can be inferred that Lord Turner
would like government to________.
publication of results of investigations.
findings of investigations secret.
regulatory action against banks.
D. give more
powers to banks.
13．The cause for the bad performance of
D. lack of
14．Lord Turner suggested that
A. should be
punished for collapse of a bank.
always get judgments right.
C. should be
applauded by the market.
D. should learn
from other companies.
15．The attitude of Simon Morris toward Lord
Turner’s suggestion is________.
11．D 文章第二段提到“the regulator says it cannot provide further details because the
Financial Services and Markets Act prevents it from doing so”，监管机构表示，它无法提供更多细节，因为金融服务和市场行为法案阻止了它这么做。由此可知英国金融服务管理局拒绝发布关于苏格兰皇家银行的报告的原因是它不能违背金融服务和市场行为法案。
12．C 根据文章第一段“called for new rules that would hold bankers to a higher standard of
conduct than typical boardroom bosses”，可知Turner呼吁制定新的规则，使银行家的行为标准高于典型的董事会老板。因此可以推断出Turner想让政府整顿银行秩序。
13．B 文章第三段首句提到：The FSA last week blamed “bad” decisions rather than any dishonesty
for the events that led to the ￡45bn taxpayer bailout of RBS，由此可知苏格兰皇家银行的糟糕的表现指的是在450亿英镑的纳税人的经济救助问题上的不诚信的做法。
14．A 文章倒数第三段提到“He suggested that rules, such as those in the US, demanding bankers
forfeit two years’ pay if they were responsible for the bank’s collapse, could
15．C 根据文章倒数第二段提到的“The idea that senior bankers should be subject to a retrospective
blame regime of the kind that Lord Turner is advancing is misconceived”，可知Simon Morris认为高级银行家应该服从于Turner正在推进的那种追溯性的指责机制这一想法是错误的。由misconceived一词可知Simon Morris对Turner的建议并不赞成。
Section B Answering Questions (10 points)
Directions: Read the
following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SENTENCES the questions which
follow each passage. Use only information from the passage you have just read
and write your answer in the corresponding space in your answer sheet.
On Election Day,
the American people rejected reckless spending, runaway debt and the record
growth of government. They also rejected years of establishment arrogance -
found in both parties - that for too long has ignored their will.
But before the new
wave of GOP lawmakers take their seats, Democratic leaders are determined to
push even their most unpopular policies right up to the last minute. House
Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid are planning to hold
a vote Wednesday on the highly controversial Development, Relief and Education
for Alien Minors Act, or Dream Act, a measure that would give amnesty to
millions of illegal immigrants, including those with criminal records.
I served in the
Senate during the heated immigration debate of 2006 and 2007 when Americans’
overwhelming opposition to amnesty deluged Congress with letters and shut down
the Capitol switchboard. Their message was clear: Don’t incentivize the
But rather than
heed the public will, Democratic leaders in Congress are moving in the opposite
direction. As many citizens plead for our immigration laws to be enforced, the
Dream Act would reward and encourage their violation. Here are some of its most
●The Dream Act would also afford some federal education benefits to
illegal immigrants, including federally backed student loans and work study
programs. Thus, Americans struggling to pay for their kids’ college in the
midst of a recession are being asked to help subsidize benefits for the college
education of those who are not even supposed to be in the country.
●Making matters worse, the bill allows illegal immigrants with fewer
than three misdemeanor convictions to remain eligible for legal, permanent
status, meaning amnesty is open to those who have, for example, joined gangs,
been convicted of driving under the influence, engaged in fraud or even made
false claims to immigration authorities.
Because the Dream
Act does not expire, or impose any numerical cap, the scope of the bill’s
amnesty program could be enormous. And by rewarding illegality, the legislation
will incentivize even more of it and send the message that future illegal
immigrants will be rewarded with amnesty as well.
When voters went
to the polls on November 2, they didn’t only choose a new path. They also wrote
Congress specific directions. On the matter of illegal immigration, those
directions have been clear for some time: Enforce the laws on our books,
complete the border fence and protect American jobs by holding employers
accountable. If those-efforts are successful, we can then begin a national
conversation about what to do with those Illegal immigrants who have been here
for an extended time.
Democratic leaders are making a brazen push for mass amnesty. They are again
defying the public will and sending the world a message that our nation is not
serious about the integrity of our borders or our laws.
citizenship is the envy of the world. But central to our nation’s greatness is
our respect for the rule of law. By eroding that respect through reckless and
irresponsible amnesty, we would do a disservice not only to the 300 million
Americans who call this nation home, but to all those who are lawfully applying
and waiting for their chance to be citizens.
1．What is Dream Act?
2．Summarize in your own words why the
author of this passage is against Dream Act?
1．It is a measure that would give amnesty to millions of illegal
immigrants, including those with criminal records.
2．Because the Dream Act would benefit illegal immigrants, reward
and encourage their violation, and by rewarding illegality, the legislation
will incentivize even more of it and send the message that future illegal
immigrants will be rewarded with amnesty as well.
Recently we have
seen a large number of fairly high-profile libel cases involving scientists and
doctors, including Dr Peter Wilmshurst, Dr Henrik Thomson, Dr Simon Singh, and
In many of them,
lawyers have been dismissive of any special pleading for science in the libel
reform movement: if you want to step out and criticize, they explain, you
should be aware of the implications and ready to defend your point. But in
science, the assumptions and traditions are different, and with good reason. In
science and medicine, criticizing each other’s ideas and practices isn’t
misconduct or a special occasion: it’s exactly what you are supposed to do, all
of the time, and with very good reason.
almost unique among all human activities in that it’s possible to do enormous
harm even when you set out with the absolute best of intentions, and there are
many examples of this, even in mainstream healthcare. In medicine, when you
make a mistake about whether something works or not, it’s possible to cause
death and suffering on a genuinely biblical scale.
That’s why we
have systems to try and stop us making such mistakes, and at the heart of all
these lies mutual criticism: criticizing each other’s ideas and practices. This
isn’t something that’s marginal, or tolerated by the profession. It’s something
that is welcomed and actively encouraged more than that it’s institutionalized.
In a BBC World
Service documentary out today - made with the BBC Radio science unit, rather
than current affairs —we explain why science is different, and why it is
dangerous to have laws that restrict the everyday scrutiny of each other’s
ideas and practices that scientists and doctors necessarily engage in.
current libel laws, reading about cases such as Wilmshurst’s, Thomson’s,
Singh’s and my own, scientists and doctors are increasingly aware that every
utterance could have bizarre and unpredictable legal consequences; that even if
you’re proved right, a case may still take years of working unpaid every
evening and weekend, and hundreds of thousands of pounds you cannot spare.
In science and
medicine, mutual criticism has a massive societal benefit, because we all
benefit from the way it makes medicine safer, but the burden of libel is
shouldered entirely by individuals who are unprepared and often unprotected.
You cannot reasonably expect scientists to be experts in the details of libel
law as well as their own field, and you cannot reasonably expect people to
constantly and unpredictably put their fatuities’ homes at stake, just for
doing the job we expect of them.
In my view, as a
society, we have to choose. At the moment, we expect scientists and doctors to
speak out when they see problems with other peoples’ ideas and practices, and
unthinkingly, not even in the melodramatic sense of a whistleblower: it’s
simply the job. But with the law in its current state, doctors and scientists
might be wiser simply to stop giving any view about any drug or health-related
product that is marketed for commercial purposes, in any forum, and make it
clear that from now on, decisions and utterances about efficacy should be made
solely by the manufacturers, or only on very rare occasions, under tightly
controlled circumstances and after extensive legal review.
If that’s what
we want, then we should leave the law unchanged and communicate this fact
clearly, to all doctors, and scientists: because we cannot expect them all to
be expert defamation lawyers and we cannot expect them to shoulder the burden
of a law that is expensive, long-winded, unclear, and unpredictable and could
destroy you in a moment.
3．According to the author of this passage,
what is essential in science and medicine?
4．Why is criticism especially important
5．What kind of dilemma are scientists and
doctors now faced with?
3．It’s essential to criticize each other’s
ideas and practices with good reasons.
4．Because in medicine, when you make a mistake about whether
something works or not, it’s possible to cause death and suffering on a
genuinely biblical scale.
5．In science and medicine, mutual criticism is beneficial and
necessary but the burden of libel is shouldered entirely by individuals who are
unprepared and often unprotected.
III. Writing (30 points)
What do you want
most in a friend—someone who is intelligent, or someone who has a sense of
humor, or someone who is reliable? Which one of these characteristics is most
important to you? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice.
Write a composition of about 400 words on your view of the topic.
various qualities that make up a good friend, such as intelligence, sense of
humor, reliability, just name a few. In consideration of many qualities that I
want my friend to have, a sense of humor ought to come first. Note that in
conforming to my preference, well, I have a strong sense of humor and I am a
humor listener as well, I simply wish that humor can resonate to our daily
communicating. It’s essential to have something in common with your friend,
otherwise one could be unbridgeable to another, and there will be no friendship
speaking, I conceive a sense of humor as a sign of being attractive, so if your
friend has the same quality then it will turn out to be more attractive. An
attractive personality is likely to be sociable, it means that people would
love to stay around having fun and feeling happy, since you create the ambience
that is so much enjoyable, and thus a pretty nice impression is made. In this
way, you don’t need do worry about to be left single all the time, because
attractive can also mean romantic, once you know how to be romantic, you are
more likely to win a love. So in order to be attractive, I would certainly love
to make an attractive friend, which is an equivalent of a sense of humor as
To consider it
deeper we found that a sense of humor can be purely artistic, it values in a
particular way and has a fantastic effect. Mostly when we are in embarrassment
we feel shame and hard to make a move, but when we know how to use humor
instead of embarrass, the problems could be perfectly fixed. We see a lot of
great politicians answering questions asked by picky journalists so properly and
ingeniously that averts the irony, to have a more subtle one by a sense of
humor. It’s of wise and artistic.
To sum up, I’d
love to emphasize the point on how important for a friend of mine to have the
sense of humor, I can learn from them in order to be like them, wise and
attractive, and more basically, they are simply my kind of favorite. It’ true
that with a friend who is intelligent or reliable you may have easier life, however,
a friend who endows a sense of humor would let your life fraught with relaxation,
hope and more freshness.