[电子书]胡壮麟语言学教程第3版教材课后习题答案详解考研笔记复习题模拟题

胡壮麟语言学教程第3版教材课后习题答案详解考研笔记复习题模拟题
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第1章 语言学导论

1.1 复习笔记

本章要点:

1.The definitionand the design features of language

语言的定义与特征

2.The originand the function of language

语言的起源和功能

3.Main branchesof linguistics study

语言学研究的范围和内容

4.Importantdistinctions in Linguistics

语言学的一些重要区分

本章考点:

1.有关语言的常考考点

语言的定义;语言的基本特征(任意性、二重性、多产性、移位性、文化传递和互换性);

语言的功能(提供信息、人际交往、施为、表达情感、寒暄、娱乐、元语言);

语言的起源(神授说,人造说(“汪汪”,“噗噗”,“哟——嘿——吼”理论),进化说)等。

2.有关语言学的常考考点

(1)语言学的定义,现代语言学与传统语法学研究的三个显著区别。

(2)语言学研究的四个原则及其简要说明。语言学中几组重要区别,每组两个概念的含义、区分及其意义。

(3)普通语言学的主要分支学科及各自的研究范畴。

(4)宏观语言学及应用语言学的主要分支及各自的研究范畴。

本章内容索引:

I. Definition of language

II. Design features of language

1.Arbitrariness

2.Duality

3.Creativity

4.Displacement

5.Cultural Transmission

6.Interchangeability

III. Origin of language

1.The Biblical account

2.The bow-wow theory

3.The pooh-pooh theory

4.The yo-he-ho theory

5.The evolution theory

IV. Functions of language

1.Informative function

2.Interpersonal function

3.Performative function

4.Emotive function

5.Phatic function

6.Recreational function

7.Metalingual function

V. Definition of linguistics

VI. Branches of linguistics

1.Microlinguistics

2.Macrolinguistics

VII. Important concepts and their distinctions

1.Descriptive vs. Prescriptive

2.Synchronic vs. Diachronic

3.Langue vs. Parole

4.Competence vs. Performance

5.Etic vs. Emic

6.Traditional Grammar vs. ModernGrammar

7.Linguistic Potential vs. ActualLinguistic Behavior

I. The definition of language (语言的定义)

Language is asystem of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. This definitionhas revealed five essential factors of language: systematic, arbitrary, vocal,symbolic and most importantly human-specific.

语言是人类以口头交流的任意的符号系统。该定义揭示了语言的五个要素:系统,任意,口头,符号,人类。

II. Thedesign features of language (语言的定义特征)

【考点:名词解释&填空】

Design featuresrefer to the defining properties of human languages that distinguish it fromany animal system of communication.

语言的定义特征是人类语言区别于其他动物交流系统的特点。

1.Arbitrariness (任意性)

It is the corefeature of language, which refers to the fact that there is no logical orintrinsic connection between a particular sound and the meaning it isassociated with. it is not entirely arbitrary at all levels. Some words, suchas the ones created in the imitation of sounds by sounds are motivated in acertain degree.

任意性是语言的核心特征,是指符号的形式或者声音与意义之间没有逻辑或内在联系。虽然语言从本质上讲是任意的,但也不是完全任意的。一些词语,例如一些拟声词的发音与其意义还是有一定联系的。

2.Duality (二重性)

Duality refersto the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of theprimary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of twolevels has its own principles of organization. The property of duality onlyexists in such a system, namely, with both elements (e.g. sounds, letters) andunits (e.g. words).

二重性是指拥有两层结构的这种属性,底层结构是上层结构的组成成分,每层都有自身的组合规则。二重性只存在于这样的系统之中,既有元素又有它们组合成的单位。

3.Creativity (创造性)

Creativity meanslanguage is resourceful because of its duality and its recursiveness, whichenables human beings to produce and understand an infinitely large number ofsentences in our native language, including the sentences which were neverheard before.

创造性指语言的能产性,它能够使人造出和理解无穷的长句,其中很多句子是以前从未听过的。

4.Displacement (移位性)

Displacementmeans that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events andconcepts which are not present (in time and space) at the moment ofcommunication. Displacement benefits human beings by giving them the power tohandle generalizations and abstractions.

移位性是指人类语言可以让使用者在交际时用语言符号代表时间上和空间上并不可及的物体、事件和观点。移位性赋予人们的概括和想象力使人类受益无穷。

5.Cultural Transmission (文化传递性)

Language isculturally transmitted. It cannot be transmitted through heredity.

语言不是靠遗传,而是通过文化传递的。

6.Interchangeability(互换性)

Interchangeabilityrefers to the fact that man can both produce and receive messages, and hisroles as a speaker and a hearer can be exchanged at ease.

互换性是指人可以是信息的发出者,也可以是信息的接受者,即人作为说话者和听话者的角色是可以随意更换的。

III. Origin of language(语言的起源)

1.The Biblical account(圣经的记载)

Language was God’sgift to human beings.

语言是上帝的恩赐。

2.The bow-wow theory (“汪汪”理论)

Language was animitation of natural sounds, such as the cries of animals, like quack,cuckoo.

语言是模仿自然的声音,例如动物的叫声,如(鸭子)的刮刮声,嘎嘎声,布谷鸟的叫声。

3.The pooh-pooh theory(“噗噗”理论)

Language arosefrom instinctive emotional cries, expression of pain or joy.

语言来源于人本能的情感声音,表达疼痛或喜悦。

4.The yo-he-ho theory (“哟——嘿——吼”理论)

Language arosefrom the noises made by a group of people engaged in joint labour or effort –lifting a huge hunted game, moving a rock, etc.

语言起源于原始人共同劳动时发出的有节奏的哼哟声。

5.The evolution theory(进化理论)

Languageoriginated in the process of labour and answered the call of social need.

语言起源于劳动的过程,满足了社会的需求。

IV. Functions oflanguage (语言的功能)

【考点:判断所描述的是语言的何种功能&名词解释】

1.Informative function (信息功能)

Language is usedto tell something, to give information, or to reason things out. Theinformative function is regarded as the most important function. Declarativesentences serve this function.

语言用来陈述某件事情,提供信息或用作推理。信息功能是语言最重要的功能,一般出现在陈述句中。

2.Interpersonal function (人际功能)

Theinterpersonal function is considered as the most important sociological use oflanguage, by which people establish and maintain their status in a society.

人际功能是语言最重要的社会功能。人们由此建立和维持他们的身份和社会地位。

3.Performative function (施为功能)

The performativefunction of language is primarily used to change the social status of persons, suchas in marriage ceremonies, the sentencing of criminals, the blessing ofchildren, the naming of a ship at a launching ceremony, and the cursing ofenemies. The kind of language employed in performative verbal acts is usuallyquite formal and even ritualized.

语言的施为功能主要是用来改变人的社会地位,例如在婚礼、判刑,为孩子祈福和在首航仪式上为船命名、诅咒敌人。在这些言语行为中,语言通常是非常正式的,甚至是仪式化的。

4.Emotive function (感情功能)

The emotivefunction of language is one of the most powerful uses of language because it isso crucial in changing the emotional status of an audience for or againstsomeone or something.

语言的感情功能是语言最有用的功能之一,因为它在改变听者赞成或反对某人、某物的态度上作用非常关键。

5.Phatic function (寒暄功能)

This functionrefers to expressions that help define and maintain interpersonal relations,such as slangs, jokes, jargons, ritualistic exchanges, switches to social andregional dialects.

寒暄功能是指那些有助于确立和维持人际关系的表达,例如俚语、玩笑、行话、礼节性的问候、社会方言或地域方言的转用等。

6.Recreational function (娱乐功能)

The recreationalfunction refers to the use of language for the sheer joy of it, such as a baby’sbabbling or a chanter’s chanting.

语言的娱乐功能是指纯粹为了娱乐而使用语言,例如婴儿的呀呀学语,歌者的吟唱。

7.Metalingual function (元语言功能)

The metalingualfunction refers to the fact that our language can be used to talk about itself.

语言的元语言功能是指语言可以用来讨论语言本身。

V. Definitionof linguistics (语言学的定义)

Linguistics isusually defined as the science of language or, the scientific study oflanguage. It not only focus on a particular language, but is based on the systematicinvestigation of linguistic data, conducted with reference to some generaltheory of language structure. The four principles which make linguistic ascience are exhaustiveness, consistency, economy and objectivity.

语言学通常被定义为研究科学的语言,或对语言的科学研究。它不仅仅关注某种特定的语言,而是基于一些语言结构的综合理论,对语料进行的系统研究。语言学研究的科学性可以归纳为:穷尽性、一致性、简洁性以及客观性。

VI. Branches of linguistics (语言学的分支)

1.Microlinguistics—Intradisciplinarydivisions (微观语言学)

Phonetics语音学

Phonology音系学

Morphology形态学

Syntax句法学

Semantics语义学

Pragmatics语用学

2.Macrolinguistics—Interdisciplinarydivisions (宏观语言学)

Psycholinguistics心理语言学

Sociolinguistics社会语言学

Appliedlinguistics应用语言学

Computationallinguistics计算语言学

Neurolinguistics神经语言学

VII.Important concepts and theirdistinctions (重要概念及其区分)

1.Descriptive vs. Prescriptive (描写式与规定式)

To say that linguisticsis a descriptive science means that linguists tried to discover and record therules to which the members of a language-community actually conform and doesnot seek to impose upon them other rules, or norms, of correctness. Prescriptivelinguistics aims to lay down rules for the correct use of language and settle thedisputes over usage once and for all. The distinction lies in describing howthings are and prescribing how things ought to be.

把语言说成描述性的科学是说语言学家试图发现和记录同一语言共同体的成员所遵循的规则,并不是强加给它们其他规则或正确的标准。规定式的语言学目的在于为正确使用语言定下各种规则,一劳永逸地解决用法上的争议。它们最主要的区别就在于前者描述事情怎样而后者规定事情应该如何。

2.Synchronic vs. Diachronic (共时与历时)

Language can bestudied at a given point in time or over time. When we study language at aparticular time, it is called synchronic linguistics. When we study languagedevelopments through time, it is called diachronic or historical linguistics. Synchroniclinguistics focuses on the state of language at any points in history whilediachronic linguistics focuses on the differences in two or more than twostates of language over decades or centuries.

语言研究可以是在一个给定的时间也可以是一段时间。当我们集中在某一点时间来研究语言时就叫做共时语言学。当我们研究随着时间发展的语言时就叫做历时语言学。共时语言学集中研究历史任何时期点的语言现状,而历时语言学集中研究几十年或几百年的时期内两个或比两个更多的语言状况的差异。

3.Langue vs. Parole (语言与言语)

Saussuredistinguished the linguistic competence of the speaker and the actual phenomenaor data of linguistics (utterances) as langue and parole. Langue refers to theabstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community.Parole refers to particular realizations of langue.

索绪尔用语言和言语来区分说话者的语言能力和言语上(表达的)的实际表现或语料。语言是指一个语言群体的所有成员所共有的抽象的语言系统。言语是指语言的具体实现和运用。

4.Competence vs. Performance (语言能力和语言应用)

【考点:解释Saussure和Chomsky的两对概念的异同】

(1) Chomsky madethe fundamental difference between competence and performance.

(2) A language user’sunderlying knowledge about the system of rules is called his linguisticcompetence.

(3) Performancerefers to the actual use of language in concrete situations.

(1)乔姆斯基提出了语言能力和语言应用的根本区别。

(2)一名语言使用者对于语言规则系统的潜在认识称为他的语言能力,

(3)语言运用指在具体场景中语言的实际运用。

5.Etic vs. Emic (唯素的与唯位的)

(1) Etic refersto the linguistic units containing “-etic”, for example, phonetic, morphetic, which are used todescribe linguistic facts in detail without distinctive features, and are firstused to describe sounds.

(2) Emic refersto the linguistic units containing “-emic”, for instance, phonemic, morphemic,which are used to describe abstract linguistic rules with distinctive featuresand are first used to describe phonemes.

(1)唯素的是指具有“素”的语言单位,如音素、词素,是对语言事实的细节描写,不具有区别性特征,最早用于音素描写。

(2)唯位是指具有“位”的抽象语言单位,如音位、词位,用来描述抽象的语言规则,具有区别性特征,最早用于音位描写。

6.Traditional Grammar vs. Modern Grammar (传统语法与现代语法)

Traditionalgrammar can be considered as prescriptive; it is based on “high” (religious,literary) written language. It sets models for language users to follow. ButModern linguistics is descriptive; its investigations are based on authenticand mainly spoken language data. It is supposed to be scientific and objectiveand the task of linguists is supposed to describe the language people actuallyuse, whether it is “correct” or not.

传统语法是规定式的,是基于“高度的”书面语。它为语言使用者提供可供遵循的模式。但是现代语法是描写式的,对法的研究是基于真实的并且主要是口语化的语言数据。它应该是比较科学和客观的,而语言学家的任务也应该是描述人们如何在实际中使用语言,无论其是否“正确”。

7.Linguistic Potential vs. Actual Linguistic Behavior (语言潜势与实际语言行为)

Halliday thinksthat with language, there is a wide range of things that a speaker can do in theculture he is in. The set of possibility for “doing” is termed linguisticpotential from a functional language’s view. What a speaker actually says on aparticular occasion to a particular individual is what he has selected from themany possible things he could have said. This actual selection of things from whatone could have is termed actual linguistic behavior.

韩礼德认为,通过语言说话者可以在其生活的文化环境里做一系列广泛的事情。从语言功能的角度来看,“做”的可能性就被定义为语言潜势。说话者在某一特定的场所对某个特定的个体来说,是从其所能说得多种可能的内容中挑选而来的。这种说话者从言语中所做的实际选择就叫做实际言语行为。

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