[电子书]北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语历年考研真题及详解

[电子书] 北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语历年考研真题及详解

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内容简介

1999年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2000年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2001年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2002年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2003年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2004年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2005年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2006年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2007年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2008年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2009年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2010年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2011年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2012年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2013年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2014年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

2015年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

内容简介

本书收集了北京航空航天大学外国语学院“721基础英语”1999~2015年的17套考研真题,且所有真题均提供详细的答案解析,真题答案由名校高分研究生整理,解题思路清晰、答案解析准确完整。历年真题是考研复习备考最好的资料,通过研习历年考研真题,可以了解到考题难度、风格等,为考生复习备考指明了方向。考研真题如有更新或对历年真题予以详细作答,会在第一时间内上传,学员将自动获得最新版本的产品内容。真正做到了一次购买,终身使用。

【说明】基础英语适用于报考“050201英语语言文学”专业和“050211外国语言学及应用语言学”专业的考生。北京航空航天大学“721基础英语”历年考题有稍微的变动,如2010年以后的真题均不再设置翻译部分的考题,2010年以前(包括2010年)的真题均有翻译题。但从整体上来看,历年真题的考题风格、难度等没有较大改变,因此考生一定要多加重视历年考研真题。

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试读(部分内容)

1999年北京航空航天大学外国语学院721基础英语考研真题及详解

I. Vocabulary and Structure. (30 points)

Part 1

Directions: Choose one of the four alternatives which is closest in meaning to the underlined word or phrase and mark the corresponding letter.

1.Is it true that insulin can now be synthesized?

A. produced artificially

B. tested safely

C. injected frequently

D. taken orally

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】synthesize人工合成。句意:胰岛素现在是可以合成的吗?produce artificially人工合成。test safely安全测试。inject frequently经常注射。taken orally口服。

2.We could get no information about what happened to the captives.

A. pirates

B. patients

C. prisoners

D. passengers

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】captive俘虏。句意:我们无法获得关于俘虏的任何信息。prisoner囚犯。pirate海盗。patient病人。passenger乘客。

3.Judge Smith’s decisions are generally regarded as equitable.

A. fair

B. clever

C. long

D. popular

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】equitable公平的;公正的。句意:史密斯法官的判决通常被认为是公正的。fair公平的;公正的。clever聪明的。long长的。popular受欢迎的。

4.Let me reiterate my main point.

A. report

B. repeat

C. review

D. revise

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】reiterate重申。句意:让我重申一下我的主要观点。repeat重复。report报告。review复习。revise修正。

5.The present regime took over only last month.

A. council

B. principal

C. commander

D. government

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】regime政体,政权。句意:目前的政府仅在上个月才接管政权。government政府。council理事会,委员会。principal首长;校长。commander司令官,指挥官。

6.These ideas were denounced on yesterday evening’s programme on TV.

A. praised

B. ignored

C. attacked

D. explained

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】denounce公开指责,公然抨击,谴责。句意:这些想法在昨天晚上的电视节目上遭到了谴责。attack攻击;抨击。praise表扬;赞赏。ignore忽视。explain解释。

7.They say that the government is subsidizing the shipping industry.

A. trying to destroy

B. helping to support

C. starting to develop

D. continuing to operate

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】subsidize资助;补贴。句意:他们说,政府正在补贴航运业。help to support支持;帮助。try to destroy设法毁掉。start to develop开始发展。continue to operate继续运营。

8.We still must decide on beverages for this evening.

A. things to eat

B. things to wear

C. things to drink

D. things to do

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】beverage饮料。句意:我们必须决定好今天晚上喝什么。

9.Smith expects his children to be inquisitive.

A. healthy

B. naughty

C. curious

D. serious

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】inquisitive好奇的。句意:史密斯希望他的孩子们能有好奇心。curious好奇的,求知的。healthy健康的。naughty淘气的。serious严肃的。

10.The main topic for discussion was Dr. Soames’ objectionable comments.

A. relevant

B. offensive

C. purposeful

D. unprejudiced

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】objectionable引起反对的,令人不快的,讨厌的。句意:讨论的主要话题是Soames博士的令人讨厌的评论。offensive讨厌的,无礼的。relevant相关的。purposeful有目的的。unprejudiced无偏见的。

Part 2

Directions: Choose one from the four alternatives that best completes the sentence and mark the corresponding letter.

11.Living in central Australian desert has its problems ______ obtaining water is not the least.

A. of which

B. for

C. as

D. in that

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:在澳大利亚沙漠中部生活有其问题存在,其中获得水的问题不是最小的问题。which引导的定语从句修饰先行词problems,of表示“在……中”。

12.It isn’t cold enough for there ______ a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.

A. would be

B. being

C. was

D. to be

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:今夜不会冷到霜冻的程度,所以我可以放心地把吉姆的车停在外面。“It isn’t cold enough for there”是句子的主干。“to be a frost tonight”这是句子的补语部分。“It is adj. for sth./sb. to do sth”常用句子结构。there是个代词,作介词for的宾语,指代tonight;而to be a frost是there这个宾语的补语部分,来补充说明there的情况或状态。

13.Scientists generally agree that the Earth’s climate will warm up over the next 50 to 100 years ______ it has warmed in the 20000 years since the Ice Age.

A. as long as

B. as much as

C. as soon as

D. as well as

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:科学家普遍认为在接下来的50到100年,地球的气温将会升高,其程度可以与从冰河世纪以来这两万年中气温上升的幅度不相上下。as much as(程度,幅度等)同样多。as long as只要。as soon as一……就。as well as和;以及。

14.How many of us ______, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

A. attended

B. attending

C. to attend

D. have attended

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这么说吧,我们参加一个与自己毫不相关的会议时会有多少人对会上的讨论感兴趣呢?动词attend与被修饰词us之间存在主谓关系,根据句意可知是还没有参加会议,所以用现在分词表示主动意义。how many of us attending相当于how many of us will attend。

15.______ is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

A. What

B. That

C. It

D. As

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:一个被普遍接受的观点是:经济增长由生产的平稳发展决定。as作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,作“正如”解。

16.It is believed that today’s pop music can serve as creative force ______ stimulating the thinking of its listeners.

A. by

B. with

C. at

D. on

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:人们认为流行音乐可以通过刺激听众的思维而成为一种创造性的力量。do sth. by doing sth.通过某种手段达到某种目的;常见表达。

17.Observations were made ______ the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

A. towards

B. of

C. on

D. with

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:在学前班和一年级开始和结束时对孩子们进行了观察。make observation on sth./sb.观察某事物/某人。

18.The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half ______.

A. of last year’s

B. those of last year’s

C. of those of last year

D. that of last year’s

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:今年马拉松的报名参赛选手人数是去年的一半。that指代the number of registered participants。

19.For there ______ successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.

A. is

B. to be

C. will be

D. being

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:为达到交流的成功,所有在场的人员都应该在讨论中表现出关注和投入。to be表示目的。

20.There was a very interesting remark in the book by an Englishman that I read recently ______ what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.

A. giving

B. gave

C. to give

D. given

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:我最近读到的一个英国人的书中有一个非常有趣的评论,他认为这是美国特色的一个原因。分析句子结构可知,空格处应该修饰remark,填入现在分词giving做后置定语,表示主动意义。that引导定语从句,修饰a book。what引导的是名词从句,作giving的宾语,其中的he thought是插入语。

21.No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything ______ going on in the world.

A. it is

B. this is

C. there is

D. what is

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:没有人会有时间去阅读或聆听关于世界上正在发生的一切事情的解释。空格处是一个定语从句,省略了that。完整形式为“No one would…everything there that is going on in the world”。

22.Andraw, my father’s younger brother, will not be at the picnic, ______ to the family’s disappointment.

A. much

B. more

C. too much

D. much more

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:我爸爸的弟弟Andraw不能参加野餐了,令家人很失望。much修饰介词短语to the family’s disappointment,表程度。

23.I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible. But I ______ fully occupied the whole of last week.

A. were

B. had been

C. have been

D. was

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:只要有可能我就去医院看望他了,但我上周的时间都被占满了。虚拟语气,前半部分为假设,后半部分是事实。

24.Help will come from the UN, but the aid will be ______ near what’s needed.

A. everywhere

B. somewhere

C. nowhere

D. anywhere

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:联合国会给予帮助,但这些援助不可能到达那些需要帮助的地方。句子中的but表明两句话是转折的关系,nowhere无处;任何地方都不;表示否定概念,符合句子逻辑表达。

25.The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates ______ a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

A. and

B. as

C. but

D. or

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:人口增长的主要原因,与其说是出生率的增长,不如说是死亡率的降低,而死亡率的降低是医疗条件的改善引起的。not so much as sth.不如……多,与其说……不如说……,固定搭配。

26.He claims to be an expert in astronomy, but in actual fact he is quite ignorant on the subject. ______ he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.

A. What little

B. So much

C. How much

D. So little

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他声称自己是天文学专家,但事实上他对此很无知。他所知道的一点点已经过时而且毫不准确。what little he knows about it是主语从句,what在从句中还作定语,修饰little,意思是“所……的一点点”。

27.Although we feel dissatisfied with the election results, we have to become reconciled ______ the decision made by our fellow countrymen.

A. for

B. on

C. to

D. in

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:虽然我们对选举结果感到不满意,但我们必须听从我们国民的选择。reconcile to sth.顺从于……。

28.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ______ one major point in contrast with the other.

A. makes

B. made

C. to make

D. making

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:这篇文章的开头和结尾都是关于两个新闻报道的,每一个的主要观点与另一个的不同。本题考查独立主格结构。后半部分each用做逻辑主语,与动词make之间存在主谓关系,所以用现在分词修饰。

29.Just as the soil is part of the earth. ______ the atmosphere.

A. as it is

B. the same is

C. so is

D. and so is

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:正如土壤是地球的一部分一样,大气也是地球的一部分。just as..., so...就像……一样,……也……,表示比较。在so引导的分句中往往省略一些句子成分,完整结构为so the atmosphere is a part of the earth。

30.______ can help but be fascinated by the would into which he is taken by the science fiction.

A. Everybody

B. anybody

C. Somebody

D. Nobody

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:所有人都情不自禁被科幻小说带入另一个世界。can help but“可以忍住但没有,情不自禁”。根据句意可知应选everybody(每一个人)。

II. Mistake spotting (10 points)

Directions: Decide which underlined part is incorrect and mark the corresponding letter.

1.Allen has stated that he has always had a great interest and admiration for the work of the British economist Keynes.

A. has stated

B. has always had

C. a great interest and admiration

D. for

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】a great interest and admiration改为a great interest in and admiration。interest从通常与介词in搭配,表示“对……感兴趣”。

2.The Bunsen burner is so named because it is thought to be invented by Robert Bunsen, who was German by birth.

A. so

B. it is thought

C. to be invented

D. by

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】to be invented改为to have been invented。“发明”这个动作发生在过去,并对现在有影响,所以用现在完成时。

3.Much although I have travelled, I have never seen anyone to equal her in thoroughness, whatever the job.

A. Much although

B. to equal

C. whatever

D. the job

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】much although改为much as或much though。much只有放在as和though的前面才能构成倒装结构。

4.The conveniences that Americans desire reflecting not so much a leisurely lifestyle as a busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are too valuable to be wasted.

A. reflecting

B. leisurely

C. are

D. to be wasted

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】are改为is。minutes of time表示单数概念,谓语动词应该用单数形式。

5.In debating, one must correct the opponent’s facts, deny the relevance of his proof or deny that what he presents as proof, unless relevant, is sufficient.

A. opponent’s

B. that

C. what

D. unless

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】unless改为if。句意:在辩论中,要对对方所述事实进行反驳,否定其论据的相关性或者直接否定论据本身,因为一旦论据有相关性就足以使其论述成立。if表假设,符合句子逻辑表达。

6.The speaker claimed that no other modern nation devotes so small a portion of its wealth to public assistance and health than the United States does.

A. no other

B. so small

C. than

D. does

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】than改为as。so as表示比较概念,固定搭配。句意:该发言人称,没有一个现代国家像美国一样,只把如此少部分的社会总财富用于社会援助和医疗。

7.If individuals are awakened each time as they begin a dream phase of sleep, they are likely to become irritable even though their total amount of sleep has been sufficient.

A. are awakened

B. each time as

C. even though

D. has been sufficient

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】each time as去掉as。each time可以直接用做时间状语连词,意为“每次;每当”。

8.On the whole, ambitious students are much likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

A. On the whole

B. are much likely

C. are those

D. with

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】are much likely改为are more likely。根据后面出现的than一词可知这里表示比较,所以应该用more。

9.In this way these insects show an efficient use of their sound-produced ability, organizing two sounds delivered at a high rate as one call.

A. sound-produced

B. organizing

C. delivered

D. call

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】sound-produced改为sound-producing。sound-producing做形容词修饰ability,表示“发声能力”。

10.For him to be reelected, what is essential is not that his policy works, but that the public believe that it is.

A. to be reelected

B. works

C. but that

D. is

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】is改为does。does用做代动词,代指works。

III. Cloze test (10 points)

Directions: Fill in each underlined space with one word that best suits the context of the following passage.

The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is  (1)   the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of  (2)   breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words  (3)   a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may  (4)   unfavorable reactions in the listener  (5)   interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down.

  (6)  , inaccurate or indefinite words may make  (7)   difficult for the listener to understand the  (8)   which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be  (9)   to explain or describe in a  (10)   that can be understood by his listeners.

【答案与解析】

1.of

(be of utmost importance相当于be very important,意为“十分重要的”。)

2.likely

(根据上下文可知句意是:适当的选词可以消除交际过程中可能出现的障碍。likely意为“很有可能的”,修饰breakdown。)

3.prevents

(此句描写的是“随意选词”的不利之处,所以空格处可以填prevents。句意:经常,随意的单词使用阻碍说话者和听话者之间的思想交会。)

4.cause

(该句还是对“随意选词”的不利之处的具体解释。cause引起。句意:说话者使用的词语可能会引起听众的不快反应。)

5.and

(分析句子结构可知,空格处连接两个动词cause和interfere,表示并列,所以应该填and。)

6.Moreover

(结合上下文可知该段是进一步说明用词不当的坏处,所以可以填入表递进关系的连词moreover。)

7.it

(it做make的形式宾语,difficult为宾语补足语,真正的宾语是动词不定式结构。)

8.message

(文章主要讲的就是交流中信息传递的问题,所以应该填message。句意是:不正确的或者不明确的词可能会使听话者难于理解传送给他的消息。)

9.unable

(be unable to do sth.不能做某事。这里表达的意思是:那些在他的词语库里没有具体的词语的表达者将不可能以他的聆听者能听懂的方式解释或表达。)

10.way

(way表示“方式;方法”,在这里做定语从句的先行词。)

IV. Translation from English into Chinese. (15 points)

The ideas and concepts most important to our everyday lives are largely unscientific; their correctness or incorrectness cannot be determined in the laboratory. Interestingly enough, it seems that everybody honestly believes that his own ideas about the rightness or wrongness of things are correct, and that almost everybody is acquainted with people who hold completely opposite views-so the ideas of some (or all) must be incorrect. How do you know whether or not you are one of those holding erroneous beliefs? There is a test. Before you can be reasonably convinced that you are right about a particular idea, you should be sure that you understand the objections and the positions of you most articulate antagonists. You must find out whether your views are supported by a sound knowledge of opposing ideas or by your misconceptions of opposing ideas. You made this distinction by seeing whether or not you can state the objections and positions of your opposition to their satisfaction. Even if you can successfully do this, you cannot be absolutely certain of being right about your own ideas, but the possibility of being right is considerably higher than if you cannot pass this test. The person who can state his antagonist’s point of view to the satisfaction of his antagonist is more likely to be correct in his own beliefs than the person who cannot.

【参考译文】

对我们日常生活最重要的思想和概念在很大程度上是不科学的;他们的正确性与否在实验室里是无法确定的。有趣的是,似乎每个人都诚实地相信自己对事物的正误的看法是正确的,而且几乎每个人都认识持完全相反观点的人——所以有些人(或所有人)的想法都是不正确的。你怎么知道你是不是一个持有错误信念的人?有一个测试。在你能合理地确信你的某个特定的想法是正确的之前,你应该确保你理解了你最善于表达的对手的反对意见和立场。你必须弄清楚你的观点是否得到了反对意见的声音的支持,或者你对对立观点的误解。你可以通过看你是否能表达自己对他们的观点的反对立场来做出区分。即使你能成功做到这一点,你也不能完全肯定自己的想法是正确的,但是如果你不能通过这个测试,那么正确的可能性就更低。能够说出让对手满意的观点的人,他们持有的观点比那些做不到这样的人的观点更有可能是正确的。

V. Translation from Chinese into English. (20 points)

三百多年以前,少数拓荒者横渡大洋来到詹姆斯敦和普利茅斯,寻求他们的自己国内无法获得的一些自由,也是我们今天仍然珍视的一些自由:免于匮乏的自由,免于恐惧的自由,言论自由及信仰自由。今天,这些早期移民的后裔以及后来加入其行列的人们正在美国国内和全世界为捍卫这些自由而战斗。

然而还有一个第五自由:达到自己最佳境界的自由,我们却正面临着丧失的危险,而这一自由正是上述四大自由的基础。也许你生下来就具有成为诗人、音乐家或天文学家的才能,但在时间还不太晚的时候,没人位你一把,等时机一过,就再也无法唤醒在你身上沉睡的这些才能了,达到自己最佳境界的自由就是人人有把自己的能力发挥到最高水平的机会。

【参考译文】

More than three centuries ago a handful of pioneers crossed the ocean to Jamestown and Plymouth in search of freedoms they were unable to find in their own countries, the freedoms we still cherish today: freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of speech, freedom of religion. Today the descendants of the early settlers, and those who have joined them since, are fighting to protect these freedoms at home and throughout the world.

And yet there is a fifth freedom-basic to those four-that we are in danger of losing: the freedom to be one’s best. No one grasped you by the shoulder while there was still time; and nought will awaken in you the sleeping poet or musician or astronomer that possibly inhabited you from the beginning. The freedom to be one’s best is the chance for the development of each person to his highest power.

VI. Writing. (15 points)

Directions: Write a composition of about 200 words on the topic “The qualifications of a young scholar.”

【参考范文】

When it comes to the question what makes a qualified young scholar, there are three main qualities can account for a good scholar: innovative, critical and honest.

To begin with, a qualified young scholar is the one who embrace the quality of being innovative. As we all know, innovation is the spirit of human being’s progress. Only those who are innovative can make continuous progress and maintain a competitive edge in the research field. Therefore, young scholars are encouraged to be innovative and should always bear in mind that the consciousness of innovation is of great significance to either scientific or literary development.

In addition, being critical plays an important role in making a qualified scholar. True research demands new ideas, perspectives, and arguments based on willingness and confidence to revisit and directly challenge existing schools of thought and established positions on theories and accepted codes of practice. Success comes from a recursive approach to the research question with an iterative refinement based on constant reflection and revision. The importance of critical thinking skills in research is therefore huge, without which researchers may even lack the confidence to challenge their own assumptions.

Last but not least, the qualification of being honest can’t be ignored. In a sense, if life is a long journey, honesty will be the backpack that should be taken along all the way. As for young scholars, it’s important to be honest with one’s own findings. Plagiarism in research will bring him or her anywhere. We may get short-term benefits by dishonest means, but the truth will come out sooner or later and the cost is high. So remember: honest is the best policy.

To sum up, being innovation, critical and honest can make a qualified one out the young scholars.

【解析】

题目要求讨论“青年学者应该具有的品质”。文章首段明确指出“青年学者应该要有创新能力,批判性思维和诚信”;中间三段分别讨论了创新、批判性思维以及诚信的重要性;最后一段则重申观点,总结全文。本文观点明确,层次清晰,富有逻辑。

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