[电子书]浙江工商大学257英语(二外)2018年2017年2016年2015年考研真题不含答案及详解

浙江工商大学257英语(二外)2018年2017年2016年2015年考研真题不含答案及详解
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2008年浙江工商大学217英语(二外)考研真题

招生专业:日语语言文学

考试科目:217英语  总分:100分 考试时间:3小时

Test Paper 1

Part I ReadingComprehension (45%)

Direction: There are6 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C),and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letteron the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 1 to 5 arebased on the following passage.

Andrew Carnegie,known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and inthe process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His successresulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from hispolicy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of hiscompetitors were reducing toll investments.

Carnegiebelieved that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also feltstrongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society.He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunitiesthat would allow others to help themselves. “He who dies rich, dies disgraced.”he often said.

Among his morenoteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his names, includingthe Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of finearts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technologythat is now part of Carnegie Mellon University. Other generous gifts he gave tosociety are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promoteunderstanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fundscientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

Few Americanshave been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie’s generosity. His contributions of morethan five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communitiesthroughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system dialwe all enjoy today.

1.Andrew Carnegie made his fortunes in_____.

A. investments

B. education

C. steelindustry

D. expansion

2.According to Andrew Carnegie, thewealthy are obliged to _____.

A. donate moneyto society

B. provideeducation opportunities to the needy

C. builtscientific research centers

D. offergenerous gifts to society

3.Which of the following statements istrue?

A. Only some ofhis contributions were named after him.

B. All of hisnoteworthy contributions to society bear his names.

C. Some of theschools he founded have become universities.

D. All of hiscontributions are noteworthy.

4.“He who dies rich, dies disgraced” inLine 4, Para. 2 means _____.

A. a wealthy manwill always die in disgrace

B. wealth willbring disgrace to a man when he dies

C. an affluentman will die in shame unless he has contributed to society

D. if a man getsrich when he dies, he will be put to shame

5.Virtually all Americans have _____.

A. benefitedfrom Andrew Carnegie’ contributions

B. been deeplymoved by his generosity

C. gained accessto small community libraries

D. formed thenucleus of the public library system

Passage Two

Questions 6 to 10 arebased on the following passage.

When a manworks it is a matter of life and death, and as a rule, the first years of hislife are decisive. Any man of twenty-five who is not well on his way up theladder can be considered a hopeless case. At thisMage, all his abilities are being developed, and the fight with his competitorsis a fight to the death. Behind a mask of business friendship, be is constantlyon the watch for any sign of superiority in one of his associates, and he willnote its appearance with anxiety. If this same associate shows signs ofweakness or indecision, it must be taken advantage of at once. Yet man is onlya tiny cog in a gigantic business machine, he himself being in effect exploitedat every turn. When he drives others, he drives himself most of all. His ordersarc really orders from above, passed on by him. If the men at the topoccasionally take time to praise him, it is not in order to make him happy; itis only to spur him on, to stimulate him to greater effort. For man, who wasbrought up to be proud and honorable, every working day is merely an endlessseries of humiliations. He shows enthusiasm for products he finds useless, helaughs at jokes he finds tasteless, he expresses opinions which are not his own.Not for a moment is he allowed to forget that the merest oversight may meandemotion, that one slip of the tongue may spell the end of his career.

6.When man finds his colleague better thanhe is, he will feel _____.

A. happy

B. worried

C. indifferent

D. desperate

7.Although men are taught to be proud andhonorable, their work gives them nothing but _____.

A. orders

B. compliments

C. praises

D. humiliations

8.Which of the following statements istrue?

A. Men’s bossesmay take time to praise him only in order to make greater profits out of him.

B. Men haveenthusiasm for their work.

C. Men cherishtheir friendship with their workmates.

D. It simply doesnot matter if men happen to say the wrong thing while working.

9.Which of the following is closest inmeaning to the word “demotion” in the last sentence?

A. promotion

B. movement

C. destruction

D. downgrading

10.Which of the following may be the mostsuitable title for this passage?

A. Men’s Maskat Work.

B. Men ArcExploited Everywhere.

C. Work Is aMatter of Life and Death for Men.

D. Men’s Relationshipswith His Associates and Superiors.

Passage Three

Questions 11 to 15 are basedon the following passage.

Australia’sfertility rate is now 1.8 per cent. This is well below replacement level, a factwhich is beginning to cause some alarm among social policy experts,particularly those who recognize the link between population growth and the sustainabilityof social welfare policies which are funded by taxation.

Australian womenare now less likely to marry and far less likely to have children. TheAustralian Bureau of Statistics reported last year that 27 per cent of womenwould now not give birth at all. And if women do have children, the number of birthswill be fewer than at any other stage in history. Many more adults thin everbefore are now living alone.

Opinions differas to why this is the ease. Two recent reports offer some clues. The socialPolicy Research Center at the University of New South Wales has just releasedits report which took over two years to complete and is a national first. Amongother things, it showed that Australia’s welfare budget of $42billion fails toprovide basic living standards for some of the poorest families.

This reportdemonstrated that a child will have cost about $130,000 by its 14thbirthday. Combining this research with work previously done by Professor PeterMcDonald on foregone earnings—which were estimated for the period at 700,000 isreached.

11.What is worrying social experts is that_____.

A. the birth rateand the death rate go hand in hand

B. the birthrate and the death rite are out of balance

C. the birth rateis rising

D. thepopulation grows with the sustainability of social welfare policies

12.One of the reasons for the currentAustralia’s fertility rate is _____.

A. women do notwant to have babies

B. women can’tfind their Mr. Right

C. womendislike children

D. child-rearingis inexpensive

13.When it comes to why the birth rate hasdropped, _____.

A. there is aconsensus on it

B. there is acontroversy surrounding it

C. nothing hasbeen found so far

D. only thepoor women refuse to give birth to babies

14.Which of the following statements istrue?

A. Little isknown about the cause of the drop in the fertility rote.

B. Much researchhas been conducted on the present birth rate.

C. The drop inthe birth rate is a political issue.

D. Reports onthe factors contributing to the current fertility rate are rare.

15.What is chiefly responsible for thedrop in the birth rate?

A. Women refuseto have babies.

B. Man has alonger life span.

C. Childrearingis an expensive matter.

D. Something iswrong with the social welfare policies.

Passage Four

Questions16 to 20arebased on the following passage.

After practicingas a surgeon for several years, Dr. Johnson decided to apply for membership in theAmerican College of Surgeons, a highly selective and distinguished professionalorganization.

As part of theapplication procedure, Dr. Johnson was asked to prepare a list of all theoperations performed in the previous seven years. Slowly, as she worked on the longlist, she began to feel uncertain. She began to question some of her decisions.Had she used the best technique in that ease? Maybe, in this ease, she wouldhave run one more test before the operation? On the other hand, maybe she wouldhave...Would the doctors on the selection committee understand that, as the onlytrained surgeon in the area, she usually could not get advice from others and therefore,had to rely completely on her own judgment? For the first time, Dr. Johnsonfelt lonely and isolated.

The longer Dr.Johnson worked on the application forms, the more depressed she became. As hopefaded, she wondered if a “country (factor” had a realistic chance of beingaccepted by the American College of Surgeons.

16.Where did Dr. Johnson work?

A. A largecity.

B. The AmericanCollege of Surgeons.

C. An area farfrom any big city.

D. A selectiveorganization.

17.What must the application formsinclude?

A. A record ofall the operations.

B. The decisionprocedure.

C. The besttechnique.

D. A list ofadvice and judgments.

18.It was most probable that Dr. Johnson was_____.

A. a well-trainedsurgeon

B. a member inthat organization

C. adistinguished surgeon in America

D. a graduatefrom the American College of Surgeons

19.When she was filling the applicationforms, Dr. Johnson began to be_____.

A. realistic

B. distinguished

C. perplexed

D. decisive

20.When filling the forms. Dr. Johnsonfelt depressed because _____.

A. she didn’tperform enough operations

B. someoperations were unsuccessful

C. she didn’tget advice from the selective committee

D. she was doubtfulabout her operations

Passage Five

Questions 21 to 25 arebased on the following passage.

The qualities ofleadership are almost constant the world over. If you would like to becomepresident of your class, school, or student council, you must first demonstratethat you have the potentials of leadership.

For one thing,you must show that you are interested in your school and in your fellowstudents. In practical terms, this means taking an active part in schoolactivities. It means joining clubs, attending dances and other socialfunctions, and going out for athletics—if you arc athletic.

If youconsciously strive to overcome shyness by going out to meet people, you willfind yourself at the same time developing mother quality of leadership-understanding.As your circle of friends and contacts widens you will get to know yourschoolmates better. Because you are no longer so concerned with your ownfeelings, you will begin to respect and take into account the feelings ofothers.

Another quality ofleadership which you can develop is willingness to do a bit extra. If you areexpected to sell ten tickets to a dance, for example, and sell fifteen, youhave proved your interest and your effort to make your organization successful.Once you acquire the reputation of always doing a little more thanexpected, your fellow students will be willing to trust you with greaterresponsibilities.

21.What is the passage chiefly concernedwith?

A. How a personcan develop qualities of leadership.

B. Various waysa good leader can make friends and influence people.

C. Theresponsibilities of leadership.

D. Why manypeople are not good leaders.

22.The author feels that a prospective leadershould attend school dances to _____.

A. prove thathe is the best dancer in the school

B. show hisinterest in school activities

C. overcome hisshyness

D. learn how todance

23.The author apparently feels that aperson who is not athletic _____.

A. should goout for athletics anyway

B. isdefinitely not interested in school elections

C. has nochance of becoming a leader

D. canparticipate in other school activities

24.According to the author, what does understandingof others lead to?

A. Respects forothers.

B. Willingnessto do a bit extra.

C. Overcomingone’s shyness.

D. Understandingof one’s own feelings.

25.The author feels that _____.

A. a person isborn with imagination

B. imaginationcan be developed

C. some peoplehave no imagination

D. imaginationprevents one from thinking hard

Passage Six

Questions 26 to 30 arebased on the follow lug passage.

When apopulation ages, there is a decrease in the relative percentage of youngerpeople. In human terms, this means that there are fewer children to take careof parents and grandparents. This increases the risk of social and emotionalisolation of older adults in a society. Under normal circumstances, an elderlycouple who have anywhere between four to twelve children will never suffer fromloneliness. As a general rule, a large family constituted a sure guaranteethat one would be supported emotionally and financially in one’s old age.In rural communities throughout the world, this meant that three generations ofthe some family would inevitably live under the same roof or very close to eachother. Drops in birth rates and economic circumstances (both opulence andpoverty) have already placed this way of life in jeopardy in many parts of theworld. By 1995 in Canada, only 12% of Canadian seniors lived with theirchildren as part of an extended family. Even in urban China, where housingconditions and the centuries-old adage “Never travel far from your old parents”have kept the family unit much tighter, more elderly couples are living ontheir own.

26.What does the sentence ‘‘there is a decrease in the relativepercentage of younger people” in Line 1 mean?

A. The numberof young people has dropped.

B. The numberof young people has increased.

C. The ratio ofthe old and the young has changed.

D. Thepercentage of older adults has risen.

27.Aging population tends to give rise to_____.

A. emotionalproblems

B. economicproblems

C. social problems

D. isolation ofthe older adults in a variety of ways

28.It is stated in the passage that _____.

A. extendedfamilies used to be common place in Canada

B. largefamilies prevail in some parts of the world

C. people in the country across the world used to have threegenerations live together or close to each other

D. the morechildren old people have, the less likely they are to live alone

29.It can be safely concluded that _____.

A. many olderadults in cities live with their children in China than elsewhere

B. more seniorslive in an extended family than elsewhere

C. Chinese takethe best care of their parents in the world

D. the problemof the old is merely regional

30.The most suitable title for thispassage is _____.

A. Lonelinessof the Old and Aging Populations

B. The Drop inthe Birth Rate

C. The Old inthe Urban Areas

D. The Old inthe Rural Areas

Part II Vocabularyand Structure (20%)

Directions: There are40 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence then are four choicesmarked A), B), C), and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes thesentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a singleline through the centre.

31.Without proper lessons, you could _____a lot of bad habits when playing the piano.

A. keep up

B. pick up

C. draw up

D. catch up

32 The man was _____ one meter fifty high.

A. almost morethan

B. hardly morethan

C. nearly morethan

D. as much as

33._____ I don’t need to say how importantthis project is.

A. Originally

B. Favorably

C. Obviously

D. Constantly

34.The judge believed that Paul, for somereason, had _____ the truth.

A. kept up

B. kept from

C. left off 

D. held back

35.The concert hall was not big enough andthe audience _____ it into the street.

A. pound

B. approached

C. overflowed

D. confined

36.The infection _____seriously the baby’shealth.

A. damaged

B. recovered

C. underwent

D. undermined

37.What the old man said always _____ mymind.

A. concentrateson

B. focuses

C. dwells in

D. holds in

38.Don’t carry your grief _____ excess.

A. in

B. towards

C. beyond

D. to

39.After a few rounds of talks, both sidesregarded the territory dispute _____.

A. beingsettled

B. to besettled

C. had settled

D. as settled

40 How to build up health is an issue of_____ interest.

A. universal

B. commonsense

C. greater

D. little

41.He was openly _____ of his elderbrother.

A. angry

B. scorn

C. contemptuous

D. contemptible

42.What they have been doing isinconsistent _____ the government’s domestic policy.

A. within

B. with

C. on

D. to

43.There is a group in the partysympathetic _____ our aims.

A. for

B. in

C. to

D. with

44.Mountain villages are completely _____in winter.

A. isolating

B. coldly

C. covering

D. inaccessible

45.This commission is surely subordinate_____ the Security Council.

A. towards

B. below

C. beneath

D. to

46.A love marriage, however, does not necessarily _____ muchsharing of interests and responsibilities.

A. take over

B. result in

C. hold on

D. keep to

47.Our son doesn’t know what to _____ at the university; he can’tmake up his mind about his future.

A. take in

B. take up

C. take over

D. take off

48._____ as a kind of art form, toys arenot characterized by technological progress.

A. Regarded

B. Regarding

C. With regard

D. Considered

49.The products made in this country are inferior_____ those in that country.

A. than

B. to

C. over

D. below

50.Most students try their best to _____the expectations of their parents.

A. dwell on

B. live through

C. live on

D. live up to

51.Having a fever, the girl was _____ tothe house for 3 days.

A. confined

B. adjusted

C. embarrassed

D. closed

52.He has an amazing _____ of interestsand rich experience.

A. various

B. varied

C. diversity

D. distinct

53.The student reviewed her homeworkcarefully to ____ all the spelling mistakes from it.

A. withdraw

B. diminish

C. abandon

D. eliminate

54.The prospect of working under a woman_____ the ultimate indignity.

A. constituted

B. got

C. considered

D. led

55.Beautiful women are prone to be prejudiced _____ when huntingfor a managerial post.

A. for

B. against

C. in favor

D. to

56.I appreciated _____ the opportunity towork in Japan three years ago.

A. having beengiven

B. having given

C. to havegiven

D. to have beengiven

57.Compact discs _____ at high speed inorder to reduce sound distortion.

A. reverse

B. reserve

C. revolve

D. resolve

58.Ann accepted the instructor’s advice tospend more time on something _____ researching into.

A. worth

B. precious

C. worthy

D. valuable

59.The refugees, all _____ had beendamaged by the war, were given help by the Red Cross.

A. their homes

B. whose homes

C. of whosehomes

D. of theirhomes

60.He caught a timber rattlesnake, which is now extinct in twoeastern states in which it once _____.

A. thrived

B. swelled

C. prosperous

D. died out

61.Doctor Smith can hardly find sufficient grounds _____ hisassumptions in favor of the new theory.

A. which tobase on

B. on which tobase

C. to base onwhich

D. which to bebased on

62.So many students went to the campus doctor before the exam thatthere seemed to be an _____ of exam-it is.

A. epidemic

B. expansion

C. extension

D. longevity

63.There seems to be a _____ between the arrival of the letter andhis abrupt departure shortly afterwards.

A. combination

B. connection

C integration

D. expectancy

64._____ the sports meeting in theweekend, I would have gone to Shanghai last Saturday.

A. But for

B. In spite of

C. Because of

D. As for

65.I don’t mind _____ the task as long asit is not too late.

A. him to delayfinishing

B. his delayingto finish

C. his delayingfinishing

D. him delay tomake

66.Fuel taxes were reduced, _____ industryfrom the effects of the rise in oil prices.

A. shivering

B. shielding

C. shedding

D. shifting

67.It is difficult for someone who’s beena stage actress to make the _____ to television.

A.qualification

B. inflation

C. opposition

D. transition

68.Working abroad should be an excitingand _____ experience for all concerned.

A. positive

B. irritable

C. permanent

D. potential

69.Patients can usually move without _____within a few weeks of the operations.

A. relief

B.recommendation

C. assistance

D. interruption

70.The political _____ in this country isenforced by terror.

A. turmoil

B. chaos

C. confusion

D. repression

Part III Cloze(5%)

Directions: There are10 blanks in the following passage. You should chaos ONE that best fits intothe passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with asingle line through the centre.

Today the world’seconomy is going through two great changes, both bigger than an Asian financialcrisis here or a European monetary union there.

The first changeis that a lot of industrial production is moving from the United States,Western Europe and Japan to developing countries in Latin America, South-EastAsia and Eastern Europe. In 1950, the United States alone  71  for more than half of the world’s economy output. In 1990, its  72  was down to a quarter. By 1990, 40% of IBM’s employees werenon-Americans; Whirlpool, America’s leading  73   ofdomestic appliances, cut its American labor force by 10%. Quite soon now, manybig western companies will have more  74   (andcustomers) in poor countries than in rich ones.

The second greatchange is that, in the rich countries of the OECD, the balance of economicactivity is swinging from manufacturing to  75   .In the United States and Britain, the  76   of workersin manufacturing has  77   since 1900 from around40% to barely half that. Even in Germany and Japan, which rebuilt so many  78  after 1945, manufacturing’s share of jobs is now below 30%. Theeffect of the shift is increased if manufacturing moves from rich countries tothe developing ones, whose cheap labor  79   them asharp advantage in many of the  80   tasks requiredby mass production.

71.A. accounted

B. occupied

C. played

D. shared

72.A. output

B. development

C. share

D. economy

73.A. state

B. consumer

C.representative

D. supplier

74.A. products

B. market

C. employees

D. changes

75.A. producing

B. products

C. servicing

D. services

76.A. proportion

B. number

C. quantity

D. group

77.A. changed

B. gone

C. applied

D. shrunk

78.A. armies

B. weapons

C. factories

D. countries

79.A. give

B. is giving

C. gives

D. gave

80.A. various

B. repetitive

C. creative

D. enormous

Test Paper 2

Part IV Translation(10%)

Directions: In thispart, there are five sentences which you should translate in Chinese. Thesesentences are all taken from the Reading Passages you have just read in Part I.You should refer back to the passages so as to identify their meanings in the context.Put your translations on the Answer Sheet.

81.(Passage One)

His success resulted in part from hisability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding duringperiods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing theirinvestments.

82.(Passage Two)

When a man works it is a matter of life anddeath, and as a rule, the first years of h life are decisive. Any man oftwenty-five who is not well on his way up the ladder can be considered a hopelesscase.

83.(Passage Three)

Combining this research with workpreviously done by Professor Peter McDonald on foregone earnings—which wereestimated for the period at $570,000—the astonishing total of $700,000 isreached.

84.(Passage Five)

If you are expected to sell ten tickets toa dance, for example, and sell fifteen, you have proved your interest and your effortto make your organization successful.

85.(Passage Six)

As a general rule, a large family constituteda sure guarantee that one would be supported emotionally and financially in one’sold age.

Part V Short AnswerQuestions (10%)

Directions: In thispart there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements.Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete thestatements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). Write youranswer on the Answer Sheet.

Elizabeth Hazenand Rachel Brown co-patented one of the most widely acclaimed wonder drugs ofthe post-Second World War years. Hazen and Brown’s work was stimulated by thewartime need to find a cure for the fungus infections that afflicted manymilitary personnel. Scientists had been feverishly searching for an antibiotictoxic enough to kill the fungi but safe enough for human use, since, unfortunately,the new “wonder drugs” such as penicillin and streptomycin killed the verybacteria in the body that controlled the fungi. It was to discover a fungicidewithout that double effect that Brown, of New York State’s Department of HealthLaboratories at Albany, and Hazen, senior microbiologist at the Department ofHealth in New York, began their long-distance collaboration. Based upon Hazen’sprevious research at Columbia University, where she had built an impressivecollection of fungus cultures, both were convinced that an antifungal organismalready existed in certain soils.

They divided thework. Hazen methodically screened and cultured scores of soil samples, whichshe then sent to her partner, who prepared extracts, isolated and purifiedactive agents, and shipped them back to New York, where Hazen could study theirbiological properties. On a 1948 vacation, Hazen fortuitously collected a clumpof soil from the edge of W.B. Nourse’s cow pasture in Fauquier County,Virginia, that, when tested, revealed the presence of the microorganisms. Infarm owner Nourse’s honor, Hazen named it Streptomyces noursei, and within ayear the two scientists knew that the properties of their substancedistinguished it from previously described antibiotics. After further researchthey eventually reduced their substance to a fine, yellow powder, which theyfirst named “fungicide.” Then renamed “nystatin” (to honor the New York Statelaboratory) when they learned the previous name was already in use. Of theirmajor discovery, Brown said lightly that it simply illustrated “howunpredictable consequences can come from rather modest beginnings.”

86.What is the main idea of the passage?

87.What is a fungicide?

88.How does nystatin differ from otherdrugs like penicillin?

89.What did Rachel Brown mean by saying“how unpredictable consequences can come from rather modest beginnings”?

90.The reason for the author to mentionW.B. Nourse is that _____.

Part VI Writing(10%)

Directions: For thispart, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic My View onWomen’s Roles in the Modern Society. You should write at least 150 words andyou should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.Write your composition on the Answer Sheet.

1.有人认为妇女的位置在家里;

2.有人认为妇女的位置在职场;

3.我的看法。