[电子书]上海海事大学357英语翻译基础历年考研真题答案详解

上海海事大学357英语翻译基础历年考研真题答案详解
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2011年上海海事大学357英语翻译基础考研真题及详解

一、英汉词条互译

1.GM food

【答案】转基因食物查看答案

2.CPI

【答案】消费者物价指数查看答案

3.GDP

【答案】国内生产总值查看答案

4.NBA

【答案】美国职业篮球联赛查看答案

5.NASDAQ

【答案】纳斯达克指数查看答案

6.HSBC

【答案】汇丰银行查看答案

7.Federal Reserve

【答案】(美国)联邦储备系统查看答案

8.Euro

【答案】欧元查看答案

9.Patriot missile

【答案】爱国者导弹查看答案

10.currency appreciation

【答案】货币升值查看答案

11.exchange rate

【答案】汇率查看答案

12.multilateral trade talks

【答案】多边贸易谈判查看答案

13.domestically-oriented economy

【答案】内向型经济查看答案

14.exclusive agency

【答案】独家代理商查看答案

15.paternity test

【答案】亲子鉴定查看答案

16.民工

【答案】migrant worker查看答案

17.脱口秀

【答案】talk show查看答案

18.九五折

【答案】5% discount查看答案

19.泥石流

【答案】mudslide 查看答案

20.低碳经济

【答案】low-carbon economy查看答案

21.劳动密集型产业

【答案】labor-intensive industry查看答案

22.金砖四国

【答案】BRICs查看答案

23.人头税

【答案】poll tax查看答案

24.(联合国)安理会

【答案】Security Council查看答案

25.微软公司

【答案】Microsoft (Corporation)查看答案

26.上市公司

【答案】listed company查看答案

27.董事会

【答案】board查看答案

28.一次性筷子

【答案】disposable chopsticks查看答案

29.和谐社会

【答案】harmonious society查看答案

30.第六次全国人口普查

【答案】the sixth national census查看答案

二、篇章翻译

Source Text 1

Before theinvention and diffusion of writing, translation was instantaneous and oral;persons professionally specializing in such work were called interpreters. Inpredominantly or wholly literate communities, translation is thought of as theconversion of a written text in another, though the modern emergence of thesimultaneous translator or professional interpreter at internationalconferences keeps the oral side of translation very much alive.

The translationof poetry, especially into poetry, presents very special difficulties, and thebetter the original poem, the harder the translator’s task. This is becausepoetry is, in the first instance, carefully contrived to express exactly whatthe poet wants to say. Second, to achieve this end, the poet calls forth allthe resources of the language in which he is writing, matching the choice ofwords, the order of words, and grammatical constructions, as well asphonological features peculiar to the language in metre, perhaps supplementedby rhyme, assonance, and alliteration. The available resources differ fromlanguage to language.

At the other endof the translator’s spectrum, technical prose dealing with internationallyagreed scientific subjects is probably the easiest type of material totranslate, because cultural unification (in this respect), lexicalcorrespondences, and stylistic similarity already exist in this type of usagein the languages most commonly involved, to a higher degree than in otherfields of discourse.

Translation onthe whole is an art, not a science. Guidance can be given and generalprinciples can be taught, but after that it must be left to the individual sown feeling for the two languages concerned. Almost inevitably, in atranslation of a work of literature something of the author s original intentmust be lost; in those cases in which the translation is said to be a betterwork than the original, an opinion sometimes expressed about the English writerEdward Fitzgerald s “translation” of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, oneis dealing with a new, though derived, work, not just a translation. TheItalian epigram remains justified: Traduttore traditore “The translator is atraitor.”

[Key words]

diffusion: 传播

Edward FitzGerald: 爱德华·菲茨杰拉德

epigram: 隽语

【参考译文】

在书面语言产生和传播之前,翻译是口头的、即刻的,从事此工作的专业人员被称为口译员。在有文化的群体或文化人占大多数的群体中,翻译被认为是一种书面文本向另一种文本的转换,但是在国际会议中出现的同声传译译员或专业口译员更加生动地展现了翻译中的口译的特点。

诗歌翻译,尤其是将诗歌翻译成另一种语言的诗歌,十分有难度。而且原诗越精良,译者的任务就越艰巨。首先这是因为诗歌是诗人认真创作出来、为了表达特定意义的。第二,为了表达特定意义,诗人充分利用所用语言的资源,在用词、词序、语法结构、独特音位(可能与韵律、元音押韵、头韵相结合)上都作了精心的设计。而每种语言的资源又是各不相同的。

对于译员来说,内容是国际公认的科学知识的技术类文章可能是最简单的翻译材料了,因为最常见的几种语言中科学领域比其他领域的文化更统一,词汇对应性更强,文体上更为相似。

整体来看,翻译是一门艺术,而不是一门科学。可以指导并教授一些普遍翻译原则,但之后,需要个人对两种语言的感知能力。在翻译文学作品时,作者原先的意图可能会在译文中消失,这是难以避免的。也有一些译文比原文更加精良的情况,有人曾评价英国作家爱德华·菲茨杰拉德对《鲁拜集》的翻译是以原文为依据、全新的作品,而不是译文。意大利语中的一句警句仍然是有道理的——“译者是原文的叛徒”。

Source Text 2

在人类发展史上,曾经出现过西亚两河流域巴比伦文明,北非尼罗河流域的古埃及文明,地中海北岸的古希腊——罗马文明,南亚印度河流域的古文明,发源于黄河——长江流域的中华文明,等等。由于地震,洪水,瘟疫,灾荒,由于异族入侵和内部动乱,这些古文明,有的衰落了,有的消亡了,有的融入了其他文明。只有中华文明,以其顽强的凝聚力和隽永的魅力,历经沧桑而完整地延续了下来。

中华民族的传统文化博大精深,源远流长。早在2000多年前,就产生了以孔孟为代表的儒家学说和以老庄为代表的道家学说,以及其他许多也在中国思想史上有地位的学说流派,这就是有名的“诸子百家”。中华民族传统文化有它的许多珍贵品质。比如,强调仁爱,强调群体,强调和而不同,强调天下为公。所有这些,对家庭,国家和社会起到了巨大的维系与调节作用。

【关键词】巴比伦文明:the Mesopotamiancivilization

【参考译文】

In the historyof mankind, there appeared a sequence of civilizations: the Mesopotamiancivilization in West Asia, the ancient Egyptian civilization along the Nile inNorth Africa, the ancient Greek-Roman civilization along the northern shores ofthe Mediterranean, the ancient Indian civilization in the Indus River Valley inSouth Asia, and the Chinese civilization originating in the Yellow and Yangtzeriver valleys. Owing to earthquakes, floods, plagues or famine, or alieninvasion or internal turmoil, some of these ancient civilizations decayed, somewere destroyed, and others became assimilated into other civilizations. Onlythe Chinese civilization, thanks to its strong cohesive power and inexhaustibleappeal, survived many vicissitudes and remains intact.

The traditionalChinese culture, both extensive and profound, starts far back and runs a long,long course. More than 2,000 years ago there emerged in China Confucianismrepresented by Confucius and Mencius, Taoism, represented by Lao Zi and ZhuangZi, and many other theories and doctrines that figured prominently in thehistory of Chinese thought, all being covered by the famous term, “the masters’hundred schools.” The traditional Chinese culture presents many preciousqualities. For example, they lay stress on the importance of kindness and lovein human relations, on the interest of the community, and on seeking harmonywithout uniformity and on the idea that the world is for all. All these haveplayed a great role in binding and regulating the family, the country and thesociety.