Part I ReadingComprehension (2*20=40 points)
Directions: There are five passages inthis section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Decide on thebest choice.
UniversityPhysics is intended for students of science and engineering. Primary emphasis ison physics principles and problem-solving; historical background andspecialized practical applications have been given a place of secondaryimportance. Many worked-out examples and an extensive collection of problemsare included with each chapter.
In this newedition, the basic philosophy and outline and the balance between depth of treatmentand breadth of subject-matter coverage are unchanged from previous editions. Wehave tried to preserve those features that users of previous editions havefound desirable, while incorporating a number of changes that should enhancethe book’s usefulness.
The textbook isadaptable to a wide variety of course outlines. The entire textbook can be usedfor an intensive course two or three semesters in length. For a less intensivecourse, many instructors will want to omit certain chapters or sections totailor the book to their individual needs. The arrangement of this editionfacilitates this kind of flexibility.
Conversely,however, many topics that were regarded a few years ago as of peripheral importanceand were omitted from introductory courses have now come to the fore again inthe life sciences, earth and space sciences, and environmental problems. Aninstructor who wishes to stress these kinds of applications will find thistextbook a useful source for discussion of the appropriate principles.
In any case, itshould be emphasized that instructors should not feel constrained to work straightthrough the book from cover to cover. Many chapters are, of course, inherently sequentialin nature, but within this general limitation instructors should be encouragedto select among the contents those chapters that fit their needs, omittingmaterial that is not relevant to the objectives of a particular course.
1．The textbooklays stress on _____.
A. theexposition of physical principles
B. theapplication of physics in different fields
C. thedevelopment of physics
D. theprinciples of physics and their application
2．Compared withthe old one, this new edition _____.
A. has improved the balance between theory and practice
B. is easier to learn
C. covers a wider range of subject-matter
D. has been made more applicable
3．The words “conversely, however” (Line 1, Para. 4)indicate that _____.
A. many topics can be emphasized though they were usuallyomitted by instructors
B. many topics can be emphasized though they were notcovered in the old edition
C. many topics have been added to the new edition as theywere not covered in the old one
D. many topics have been added to the new edition thoughthey can be omitted by the instructors
4．To meet the needs of a particular course, the teacher ofthis book can omit some of the contents provided that_____.
A. his selection is based on the request of his students
B. he does not omit any chapter completely
C. he keeps an eye on the internal relations between thechapters
D. his students are particularly intelligent
1．D 细节题。原文第一段第二句话“Primary emphasis is on physical principles and problem-solving,historical background and specialized practical applications have been given aplace of secondary importance.”说明本书强调了physical principles以及application，故B项为正确答案。A、D项不全面；C项只是书中的内容而不是重点。
2．D 细节题。原文第二段最后一句话“…while incorporating anumber of changes that should enhance the book’s usefulness.”指出新版增加了书籍的有用性，使之更具应用型，故D项为正确答案。B项未提及；C、D项与原文第二段第一句相矛盾。
3．A 推理题。原文第三段第三句，作者谈到导师对本书的某些章节可根据个人需要而省略，原文第四段中又说“... many topics that were regarded a few yearsago as of peripheral importance and were omitted from introductory courses havenow come to the fore again in the life sciences, earth and space sciences, andenvironmental problems”，可以推断出作者认为某些导师习惯省略的话题现在又变得重要了，可以重新强调了，故B项为正确答案。
4．C 推断题。原文最后一段第二句话“Many chapters are, of course, inherentlysequential in nature, but within this general limitation instructors should beencouraged to select among the contents those chapters that fit their needs,omitting material that is not relevant for the objectives of a particularcourse”，说明许多章节是有联系的，所以指导者可以跳过一些不相关的章节来满足需求，可以推断出教师需要了解章节之间的联系才能满足课程的特殊需要，故C项为正确答案。A、B、D项在文中均未提及。
Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got agreat catch. But he is in for an unwelcome surprise. The car is fitted with aremote immobilizer, and a radio signal from a control center miles away willensure that once the thief switches the engine off, he will not be able tostart it again.
The idea goes like this. A control box fitted to the carcontains a mini-cellphone, a microprocessor and memory, and a GPS satellitepositioning receiver. If the car is stolen, a coded cellphone signal will tellthe control center to block the vehicle’s engine management system and preventthe engine being restarted.
In the UK, a set of technical fixes is already making lifeharder for car thieves. "The pattern of vehicle crime has changed,"says Martyn Randall, a security expert. He says it would only take him a fewminutes to teach a person how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools Butonly if the car is more than 10 years old.
Modern cars are far tougher to steal, as their enginemanagement computer won’t allow them to start unless they receive a unique IDcode beamed out by the ignition key. In the UK, technologies like this havehelped achieve a 31% drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997.
But determined criminals are still managing to find otherways to steal cars, often by getting hold of the owner’s keys. And key theft isresponsible for 40% of the thefts of vehicles fitted with a tracking system.
If the car travels 100 meters without the driver confirmingtheir ID, the system will send a signal to an operations center that it hasbeen stolen. The hundred meters minimum avoids false alarms due to inaccuraciesin the GPS signal. Staff at the center will then contact the owner to confirmthat the car really is missing, and keep police informed of the vehicle’smovements via the car’s GPS unit.
5．What’s the function of the remote immobilizer fitted toa car?
A. To allow the car to lock automatically when stolen.
B. To prevent the car thief from restarting it once itstops.
C. To help the police make a surprise attack on the carthief.
D. To prevent car theft by sending a radio signal to the carowner.
6．What is essential in making a modern car tougher tosteal?
A. A GPS satellite positioning receiver.
B. A special cellphone signal.
C. A unique ID card.
D. A coded ignition key.
7．Why does the tracking system set a 100-meter minimumbefore sending an alarm to the operations center?
A. To give the driver time to contact the operationscentre.
B. To allow for possible errors in the GPS system.
C. To keep police informed of the car’s movements.
D. To leave time for the operations centre to give analarm.
8．What will the operations centre do first after receivingan alarm?
A. Start the tracking system.
B. Locate the missing car.
C. Block the car engine.
D. Contact the car owner.
5．B 细节题。原文第一段第二句话“The car is fitted with a remote immobilizer, anda radio signal from a control center miles away will ensure that once the thiefswitches the engine off, he will not be able to start it again.”说明无线电讯号会确保一旦劫匪关掉了引擎，他永远不能再发动了，故B项为正确答案。
6．D 细节题。原文第四段第一句话“Modern cars are far tougher to steal, as theirengine management computer won’t allow them to start unless they receive aunique ID code beamed out by the ignition key.”意为引擎控制系统的电脑不允许汽车发动，除非它们接收到一个由点火钥匙发出的唯一的身份码，说明点火钥匙让现代汽车更难被偷，故D项为正确答案。
7．B 细节题。原文最后一段第二句话“The hundred metres minimum avoids false alarmsdue to inaccuracies in the GPS signal.”解释道设置最低一百米的原因是避免GPS信号的不准确导致错误的警报，即为了允许GPS可能发生的错误，故B项为正确答案。
8．D 细节题。原文最后一段最后一句话“Staff at the centre will then contact the ownerto confirm that the car really is missing...”可知中心的员工会首先联系车主确认车辆是否失踪，故D项为正确答案。
To live in the United States today is to gain anappreciation for Dahrendorf’s assertion that social change exists everywhere.Technology, the application of knowledge for practical ends, is a major sourceof social change.
Yet we would do well to remind ourselves that technology isa human creation; it does not exist naturally. A spear or a robot is as much acultural as a physical object. Until humans use a spear to hunt game or a robotto produce machine parts, neither is much more than a solid mass of matter. Fora bird looking for an object on which to rest, a spear or robot serves thepurpose equally well. The explosion of the Challenger space shuttle and theRussian nuclear accident at Chernobyl drive home the human quality of technology;they provide cases in which well-planned systems suddenly went haywire andthere was no ready hand to set them right. Since technology is a humancreation, we are responsible for what is done with it. Pessimists worry that wewill use our technology eventually to blow our world and ourselves to pieces. Butthey have been saying this for decades, and so far we have managed to surviveand even flourish. Whether we will continue to do so in the years ahead remainsuncertain. Clearly, the impact of technology on our lives deserves a closerexamination.
Few technological developments have had a greater impact onour lives than the computer revolution. Scientists and engineers have designedspecialized machines that can do the tasks that once only people could do.There are those who assert that the switch to an information-based economy isin the same camp as other great historical milestones, particularly theIndustrial Revolution. Yet when we ask why the Industrial Revolution was a revolution,we find that it was not the machines. The primary reason why it wasrevolutionary is that it led to great social changes. It gave rise to massproduction and, through mass production, to a society in which wealth was notconfined to the few.
In somewhat similar fashion, computers promise torevolutionize the structure of American life particularly as they free thehuman mind and open new- possibilities in knowledge and communication. TheIndustrial Revolution supplemented and replaced the muscles of humans and animalsby mechanical methods. The computer extends this development tosupplement and replace some aspects of the mind of human beings by electronicmethods. It is the capacity of the computer for solving problems and making decisionsthat represents its greatest potential and that poses the greatest difficultiesin predicting the impact on society.
9．A spear or a robot has the quality of technology onlywhen it _____.
A. is used both as a cultural and a physical object
B. serves different purposes equally well
C. is utilized by man
D. can be of use to both man and animal
10．The examples of the Challenger and Chernobyl cited bythe author serve to show that _____.
A. technology is a human creation, so we are responsiblefor it
B. if not given close examination, technology could be usedto destroy our world
C. technology usually goes wrong, if not controlled by man
D. being a human creation, technology is liable to error
11．According to the author, the introduction of thecomputer is a revolution mainly because _____.
A. the computer has revolutionized the workings of thehuman mind
B. the computer can do the tasks that could only be done bypeople before
C. it has helped to switch to an information technology
D. it has a great potential impact on society
12．The passage is based on the author’s _____.
A. keen insight into the nature of technology
B. prejudiced criticism of the role of the IndustrialRevolution
C. cautious analysis of the replacement of the human mindby computers
D. exaggerated description of the negative consequences oftechnology
9．C 原文第二段第三句话提到“Until humans use a spear to hunt game or a robotto produce machine parts, neither is much more than a solid mass of matter”，说明直到人们用矛去捕获猎物或用机器人去生产机器零件以前，二者都只不过是硬梆梆的物体而已，也就是说只有这些东西为人类所用的时候，它们才具有科技含量，故C项为正确答案。
10．D 根据关键词the Challenger and Chernobyl定位到第二段第五句话“…they provide cases in which well-planned systems suddenlywent haywire and there was no ready hand to set them right.”提到美国挑战者号航天飞机的爆炸以及俄罗斯切尔诺贝利核泄露事件证明人类精心计划的事情会突然失去控制，并且没有做好修正它们的准备，也就是说技术是人为创造出来的，容易出问题，故D项为正确答案。
11．D 第三段倒数第二句“The primary reason why it was revolutionary isthat it led to great social changes.”提到，工业革命之所以是一场革命，主要原因是工业革命引发了巨大的社会变化，可以推断出计算机是革命的原因是它对社会有巨大的潜在影响，故D项为正确答案。
The newspaper must provide for the reader the facts,unalloyed, unslanted, objectively selected facts. But in these days of complexnews it must provide more; it must supply interpretation, the meaning of thefacts. This is the most important assignment confronting Americanjournalism--to make clear to the reader the problems of the day, to make internationalnews as understandable as community news, to recognize that there is no longer anysuch thing (with the possible exception of such scribbling as society and clubnews) as "local" news, because any event in the international areahas a local reaction in manpower draft, in economic strain, in terms, indeed,of our very way of life.
There is in journalism a widespread view that when youembark on interpretation, you are entering choppy and dangerous waters, theswirling tides of opinion. This is nonsense.
The opponents of interpretation insist that the writer andthe editor shall confine himself to the "facts". This insistenceraises two questions: What are the facts? And: Are the bare facts enough?
As to the first query, consider how a so-called"factual’’ story comes about. The reporter collects, say, fifty facts; outof these fifty, his space allotment being necessarily restricted, he selectsthe ten, which he considers most important. This is Judgment Number One. Thenhe or his editor decides which of these ten facts shall constitute the lead ofthe piece (This is an important decision because many readers do not proceedbeyond the first paragraph.) This is Judgment Number Two. Then the night editordetermines whether the article shall be presented on page one, where it has alarge impact, or on page twenty-four, where it has little. Judgment NumberThree.
Thus, in the presentation of a so-called "factual’’ or"objective" story, at least three judgments are involved. And theyare judgments not at all unlike those involved in interpretation, in whichreporter and editor, calling upon their general background, and their "newsneutralism," arrive at a conclusion as to the significance of the news.
The two areas of judgment, presentation of the news and itsinterpretation, are both objective rather than subjective processes asobjective, that is, as any human being can be. (Note in passing: even thoughcomplete objectivity can never be achieved, nevertheless the ideal must alwaysbe the beacon on the murky news channels.) If an editor is intent on slanting thenews, he can do it in other ways and more effectively than by interpretation.He can do it by the selection of those facts that prop up his particular plea.Or he can do it by the pay he gives a story—promoting it to page one ordemoting it to page thirty.
13．The title that best expresses the ideas of this passageis ____
A. Interpreting the News
B. Choosing Facts
C. Subjective versus Objective Processes
D. Everything Counts
14．Why does the writer of an article select ten out of 50available facts?
A. The subject is not important.
B. His editor is prejudiced.
C. Space is limited
D. He is entering choppy and dangerous waters.
15．What is the least effective way of "slanting"news?
16．Why should the lead sentence present the most importantfact?
A. It will influence the reader to continue.
B. It will be the best way to write.
C. Some readers do not read beyond the first paragraph.
D. It will gratify the editor.
14．C 细节题。原文第四段第二句话“…his space allotment being necessarilyrestricted…”说明作者的空间分配是非常受限制的，故C项为正确答案。
15．B 细节题。原文最后一段倒数第三句话“If an editor is intent on slanting the news, hecan do it in other ways and more effectively than by interpretation.”说明如果编辑想歪曲新闻，他可以采取比解说更有效的其他方式，下文也说可以通过选材和选择版面的方式歪曲新闻，可以看出解说是最低效的方式，故B项为正确答案。
16．C 细节题。原文第三段括号内“This is an important decision because manyreaders do not proceed beyond the first paragraph”说明许多读者只会读文章的第一段，因此文章开头需要列举最重要的事实，故C项为正确答案。
When you think of the tremendous technological progress wehave made, it’s amazing how- little we have developed in other respects. We mayspeak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they relished the orgies ofslaughter that went on in their arenas. We may despise them because theymistook these goings on for entertainment. We may forgive them condescendinglybecause they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew- no better. But are our feelingsof superiority really justified? Are we any less blood-thirsty? Why do boxingmatches, for instance, attract such universal interest? Don’t the spectatorswho attend them hope they will see some violence? Human beings remain asbloodthirsty as ever they were. The only difference between ourselves and theRomans is that while they were honest enough to admit that they enjoyedwatching hungry lions tearing people apart and eating them alive, we find all sortsof sophisticated arguments to defend sports which should have been banned longage; sports which are quite as barbarous as, say, public hangings orbearbaiting.
It really is incredible that in this day and age we shouldstill allow- hunting or bull-fighting, that we should be prepared to sit backand watch two men batter each other to pulp in a boxing ring, that we should berelatively unmoved by the sight of one or a number of racing cars crashing andbursting into flames. Let us not deceive ourselves. Any talk of "thesporting spirit" is sheer hypocrisy. People take part in violent sportsbecause of the high rewards they bring. Spectators are willing to pay vast sumsof money to see violence. A world heavyweight championship match, for instance,is front page news. Millions of people are disappointed if a big fight is overin two rounds instead of fifteen. They feel disappointment because they have beendeprived of the exquisite pleasure of witnessing prolonged torture andviolence.
Why should we ban violent sports if people enjoy them somuch? You may well ask. The answer is simple: they are uncivilized. Forcenturies man has been trying to improve himself spiritually and emotionally admittedlywith little success. But at least we no longer tolerate the sight madmen coopedup in cages, or public floggings of any of the countless other barbaric practiceswhich were common in the past. Prisons are no longer the grim forbidding placesthey used to be. Social welfare systems are in operation in many parts of theworld. Big efforts are being made to distribute wealth fairly. These changeshave come about not because human beings have suddenly and unaccountablyimproved, but because positive steps were taken to change the law. The law isthe biggest instrument of social change that we have and it may exert great civilizinginfluence. If we banned dangerous and violent sports, we would be moving onestep further to improving mankind. We would recognize that violence isdegrading and unworthy of human beings.
17．It can be inferred from the passage that the author’sopinion of nowadays’ human beings is _____.
A. not very high
18．The main idea of this passage is._____.
A. to compare two different attitudes towards dangeroussports
B. people are willing to pay vast sums of money to seeviolence
C. vicious and dangerous sports should be banned by law
D. people are bloodthirsty in sports
19．That the author mentions the old Romans is _____.
A. to compare the old Romans with today’s people
B. to give an example
C. to show human beings in the past knew nothing better
D. to indicate human beings are used to blood-thirst
20．The purpose of the author in writing this passage is_____.
A. that we must take positive steps to improve socialwelfare system
B. that, by banning the dangerous sports, we can improvethe law
C. that, by banning the violent sports, we human beings canimprove our selves
D. to show law is the main instrument of social change
18．C 主旨题。作者从古罗马人欣赏残忍的体育项目说起，指出现代人也是嗜血成性，这是不文明，必须制止。最后一段倒数第三句说“The law is the biggest instrument of socialchange that we have and it may exert great civilizing influence.”法律是我们社会改革最强大的工具，可以发挥强大的文明影响，可以总结出本文的主旨是堕落而危险的体育项目应该被法律禁止，故C项为正确答案。
19．D 作者意图题。作者提到的意图可以从第一段倒数第二句“Human beings remain as bloodthirsty as ever theywere.”看出，即说明人类和从前一样嗜血，故D项为正确答案。
20．C 作者意图题。作者在最后两句话说明“If we banned dangerous and violent sports, wewould be moving one step further to improving mankind. We would recognize thatviolence is degrading and unworthy of human beings.”表明用法律禁止危险和暴力的体育活动，人类能够进步，能够认识到暴力对人类来说是暴力及无价值的，故C项为正确答案。
Part II Vocabulary andStructure (0.5*40=20 points)
Directions: Thereare 40 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choicesmarked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence.
21．Evidence came up _____ specific sounds are recognizedby babies as young as six months old.
22．It is only when you nearly lose someone ____ fullyconscious of how much you value him.
A. do you become
B. then you become
C. that you become
D. have you become
23．Just as the soil is a part of the earth, ____ theatmosphere.
A. as it is
B. so is
C. the same as
D. and so is
【解析】句意：就像土壤是地球的一部分一样，大气也是。本题考查just as ... so固定搭配，意为“正如……一样，也……”。so后面的句子要求完全倒装。
24．While driving along the treacherous road, ____.
A. my right rear tire blow out
B. my right rear tire had a blowout
C. I had a blowout on my right rear tire
D. I had my right rear tire blowout
【解析】句意：当沿着危险的道路行驶时，我的右后车胎爆胎了。由于句子前半句省略了主语，说明主句与从句应一致，均为“I”，排除A、B项。have sth. done意为“使某物发生什么事”，代入原句“我使右后车胎爆胎了”意思不符，排除D项，故C项为正确答案。
25．Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the studyof Afro-American poetry is his insistence that _____ in a religious, as well asworldly frame of reference.
A. is to be analyzed
B. has been analyzed
C. be analyzed
D. should have been analyzed
【解析】句意：让·瓦格纳对于美非诗歌最经久不衰的贡献是，他坚持它应被从宗教以及世俗的参考框架分析。本题考查should类虚拟语气。insistence表示建议、要求，其后的宾语从句应采用（should）do的形式，即（should）be analyzed，并省略should变为be analyzed。
26．____ there is little we can do to modify the weather,we can at least know what kind of weather to expect.
27．John’s score on the test is the highest in the class;he ____ last night.
A. must study
B. should have studied
C. must have studied
D. is sure to study
【解析】句意：约翰在这次测试中拿了全班最高分；他昨晚一定努力学习了。本题情态动词的完成式表示对于过去的肯定推测。must have done表示“过去一定做了某事”；shouldhave done表示“过去本应该做某事，但实际上并未做。”
28．Frank almost never received any education, ____?
A. would he
B. did he
C. didn’t he
D. wouldn’t he
29．Even if his letter ____ tomorrow, it ____ too late todo anything.
A. will arrive, is
B. should arrive, were
C. arrives, will be
D. arrives, would be
30．We can hear ____ from the back of the room.
A. just as good
B. just as easy
C. just as well
D. easily as well
31．Child ____ she is, the girl is quite independent.
【解析】句意：这个女孩虽然是个孩子，但已经很独立了。as引导让步状语从句时，从句常用倒装语序。原句为As she is a child，根据倒装结构名词/形容词/副词/分词/动词原形+as+主语+动词，将句子改写为Child as she is。
32．These photos will show you
A. what does our university look like
B. what our university looks like
C. how does our university look like
D. how our university looks like
33．I guess Patricia will invite ____ you want.
34．To obtain a satisfactory result, one must apply two ____of paint on a clean surface.
35．We expect Mr. White will ____ Class One when Miss Janeretires.
A. take over
B. take up
C. take off
D. take to
【解析】句意：我们期待怀特先生能在珍女士退休之后接管一班。take over接管；接收。take up拿起；开始从事；占据(时间，地方)。take off起飞；脱下；离开。take to喜欢；走向；开始从事。
36．The river water was ____ from its old course into a newchannel where they were building the dam.
37．He was ____ with the power of acute observation.
38．Please ____ me on that subject.