[电子书]中国海洋大学外国语学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

[电子书] 中国海洋大学外国语学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

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内容简介

2010年中国海洋大学211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

2011年中国海洋大学211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

2012年中国海洋大学211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

内容简介

本书收集了中国海洋大学外国语学院211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]20102012年的考研真题,且所有真题均提供详细的答案解析,真题答案由名校高分研究生整理,解题思路清晰、答案解析准确完整。历年真题是考研复习备考最好的资料,通过研习历年考研真题,可以了解到考题难度、风格等,为考生复习备考指明了方向。

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试读(部分内容)

2010年中国海洋大学211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

Part I. Vocabulary and Grammar [30 points; 60 minutes]

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. Beneath each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then write your answers on the Answer Sheet. (30points)

1.It was _____ that the restaurant discriminated against black customers.

A. addicted

B. alleged

C. ascribed

D. assaulted

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:有人指控这家餐馆歧视黑人顾客。allege指控。addict使上瘾。ascribe把……归结于……。assault袭击,攻击。

2.Professor Johnson was asked to _____ his speech in order to allow the audience to raise questions.

A. condense

B. conduct

C. constrain

D. converge

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:乔森教授被要求压缩其演讲内容,好为同学们留出提问的时间。condense压缩。conduct实行。constrain限制,约束。converge聚集,汇集。

3.Competition, we believe, _____ the national character rather than corrupts it.

A. confirms

B. enforces

C. intensifies

D. strengthens

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:我们认为竞争只会增强而不会削弱民族性格。根据上下文可以推测空格处是corrupt的反义词。strengthen强大,加强,巩固。enforce强制执行,强行实施。confirm证实。intensify加剧。

4.Many people think of deserts as _____ regions, but numerous species of plants and animals have adapted to life there.

A. barren

B. virgin

C. void

D. wretched

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:很多人认为沙漠是不毛之地,但仍有许多动植物在那儿生存。barren贫瘠的。virgin(土地等)未使用的,未开发的。void 无效的。wretched不幸的,悲惨的。

5.Despite almost universal _____ of the vital importance of women’s literacy, education remains a dream for far too many women in far too many countries in the world.

A. acknowledgement

B. compliment

C. confession

D. identification

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:尽管普遍承认妇女识字的重要性,但对于世界上太多国家的太多妇女来说,受教育还只是一个梦想。acknowledgement承认。compliment赞美。confession(对使自己羞愧或尴尬之事)的承认。identification识别。

6.Teaching students of threshold level is hard work but the effort is very _____.

A. precious

B. rewarding

C. worth

D. challenging

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:教入门级的学生需要付出大量努力,但这些努力是值得的。rewarding值得的,有意义的。precious珍贵的。worth值得的,用于句型be worth sth/doing sth。challenging有挑战性的。

7.Each workday, the workers followed the same schedules and rarely _____ from this routine.

A. detached

B. deviated

C. disconnected

D. distorted

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:每个工作日,工人们遵循相同的日程表,很少违背。deviate from偏离,背离。detach from分离。disconnect sth. from sth.使分开。distort曲解;扭曲。

8.Many years had _____ before they returned to their original urban areas.

A. elapsed

B. floated

C. skipped

D. skipped

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他们回到原来住的市区之前很多年已经过去了。elapse时间消逝。float漂流。skip跳跃,蹦跳。

9.After four years in the same job his enthusiasm finally _____.

A. deteriorated

B. dispersed

C. dissipated

D. drained

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:相同的工作干了4年后,他的热情最终被磨灭了。drain(情感)消失,消散;(精力)耗尽。deteriorate恶化。disperse分散,驱散。dissipate消除,驱散。

10.An energy tax would curb ordinary air pollution, limit oil imports and cut the budget _____.

A. defect

B. deficit

C. discrepancy

D. disposition

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:能源税将控制普通的空气污染,限制石油进口并减少预算赤字。deficit赤字。defect缺陷。discrepancy不一致。disposition性情。

11.Doctors are often caught in a _____ because they have to decide whether they should tell their patients the truth or not.

A. bewilderment

B. dilemma

C. perplexity

D. puzzle

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:医生们经常处于进退两难的境地,因为他们必须决定要不要告诉病人真相。dilemma进退两难的境地。其他三项都表示困惑,但只有dilemma表示进退两难的这种困惑。

12.A 2009 World Bank report concluded that _____ girls in school was probably the single most effective anti-poverty policy in the developing world today.

A. admitting

B. assigning

C. enrolling

D. involving

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:一份1994年的世界银行报告总结出这样的结论:招收女孩子入学可能是当今发展中国家消除贫困最有效的办法。enroll招收。admit准许……进入;承认。assign分配,布置。involve参与。

13.Although the colonists _____ to some extent with the Native Americans, the Indians’ influence on American culture and language was not extensive.

A. matched

B. melted

C. migrated

D. mingled

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:虽说在一定程度上殖民者已与土著美洲人混在一起,但印第安人对美国文化及语言的影响并不大。mingle with混合。match与……相配。melt融化。migrate迁移。

14.If you don’t _____ the children properly, they’ll just run riot.

A. manipulate

B. warrant

C. supervise

D. mobilize

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:如果你不好好管教你的孩子,他们就会无法无天。supervise监督,管理。warrant使有正当理由;保证(某物为真品或正品)。mobilize调动,鼓动起。manipulate(一般为贬义)操纵,控制,摆布。

15.Mike just discovered that his passport had _____ three months before.

A. abolished

B. expired

C. amended

D. constrained

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:麦克发现他的护照三个月前到期了。expire到期,失效。abolish废除。amend修正。constrain限制,约束。

16.By signing the lease we made a _____ to pay a rent of $150 a week.

A. conception

B. commission

C. commitment

D. confinement

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:我们以签约的形式作出承诺,每周付150美元租金。commitment承诺。conception概念,观念。commission委员会。confinement局限。

17.The members of Parliament were _____ that the government had not consulted them.

A. crude

B. impatient

C. indignant

D. tolerant

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:议员们感到十分愤慨,因为政府并没有征求他们的意见。indignant愤慨的。

18.They were _____ in their scientific research, not knowing what happened just outside their lab.

A. submerged

B. immersed

C. drowned

D. dipped

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:他们都埋头于他们的科学实验,不知道实验室外面发生的事情。be immersed in专心于,沉浸在……中。drown溺水。dip浸;蘸。submerge (使)浸没;(使)淹没。

19.When a psychologist does a general experiment about the human brain, he selects people _____ and asks them questions.

A. at length

B. at random

C. in bulk

D. in essence

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:一位心理学家做一项关于人类电脑的试验,他随机地选择了几个人,问他们问题。at random随机。at length  详尽地;最后。in bulk大量。in essence本质上。

20.We are writing to the manager _____ the repairs recently carried out at the above address.

A. with the exception of

B. with the purpose of

C. with reference to

D. with a view to

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:我们将写信给经理,交流关于最近在以上地址进行维修的事项。with reference to关于,就……而论。with the exception of除……之外。with the purpose of带有……目的。with a view to以…为目标。

21.During the Copenhagen climate summit one senior Chinese minister was refused to attend the conference, and the executive secretary promised to _____ that incident.

A. look through

B. look into

C. look over

D. look after

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:哥本哈根气候峰会期间,一位中国高级部长被拒绝参会,行政秘书承诺将深入调查此事。look into 调查。look through浏览。look over快速翻阅,浏览。look after照顾。

22.Individual sports are run by over 370 independent governing bodies whose function usually include _____ rules, holding events, selecting national teams and promoting international links.

A. drawing on

B. drawing in

C. drawing up

D. drawing down

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:单项运动会由370多家独立的管理机构负责,它们的作用通常包括拟订规则、举办比赛、挑选国家队并促进国际间的交流等。draw up草拟,制定。draw on利用。draw in使参与,使卷入。draw down向下拉;招致。

23.The United States is trying to _____ the problems created by the energy crisis.

A. comply with

B. cope with

C. put up with

D. submit to

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:美国正努力处理能源危机引起的问题。cope with处理。comply with遵循。put up with忍受。submit to顺从,屈从。

24.In the meantime, the question facing business is whether such research is _____ the costs.

A. worth

B. worth of

C. worthy

D. worthwhile

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:同时,生意上面临的问题是这一研究是否值得我们投入成本。be worth sth./doing sth.值得……。worthy 一般与of连用,be worthy of doing sth.值得做某事。worthwhile表示值得的,用来修饰名词。

25.We should be able to do the job for you quickly, _____ you give us all the necessary information.

A. in case

B. provided that

C. or else

D. as if

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:我们会尽快为你完成这项工作,条件是你必须提供给我们所有必要的信息。provided that条件是,如果。in case以防,以免。or else否则,要不然。as if好像。

26.The younger person’s attraction to stereos cannot be explained only _____ familiarity with technology.

A. by means of

B. by virtue of

C. in quest of

D. in terms of

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:不能仅从熟悉技术的角度来解释年轻人对立体音响的喜爱。in terms of从……方面,以……角度。by means of以……方式。by virtue of凭借;依靠;由于。in quest of为了探索……。

27.One of the requirements for a fire is that the material _____ to its burning temperature.

A. is heated

B. be heated

C. will be heated

D. would be heated

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:燃烧的条件之一是物质被加热到燃点。表示建议、命令、意愿和要求的名词如suggestion,advice,order,requirement,request,demand,recommendation,desire等后面接that从句时,从句需用虚拟语气,从句的谓语要用动词原形或should+动词原形。

28.So confused _____ that he didn’t know how to start his lecture.

A. since he became

B. would he become

C. that he became

D. did he become

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:他如此困惑,以至于不知如何开始自己的讲座。so…that引导结果状语从句,so如果置于句首,则主句中的主谓语需要倒装,that从句不用倒装。本句可还原为:He became so confused that...。

29.This book will show the readers _____ can be used in other contexts.

A. that how they have observed

B. that they have observed

C. how that they have observed

D. how what they have observed

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:这本书将向读者展示他们所观察到的东西怎样被用到其他情境当中。这里how引导的是宾语从句,在从句中what they have observed是主语,what在引导的主语从句中作宾语。that在名词性从句中不做成分,故排除,故选C。

30.The boy students in this school are nearly _____ as the girl students to say they intend to get a college degree in business.

A. as likely twice

B. as twice likely

C. twice as likely

D. likely as twice

【答案】C

【解析】句意:打算大学获得经济类学位的男生数量是女生的两倍。倍数表达法之一:倍数+as+形容词或副词+as。

Part II. Reading Comprehension [40 points; 60 minutes]

Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions [20 points; 30 minutes]

Directions: In this section there are two reading passages, with each passage followed by FIVE multiple-choice questions. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose ONE answer that best answers the question or completes the statement. Then write your answers on the Answer Sheet.

Passage ONE

Pardon me: how are your manners?

The decline of civility and good manners may be worrying people more than crime, according to Gentility Recalled, edited by Digby Anderson, which laments the breakdown of traditional codes that once regulated social conduct. It criticizes the fact that “manners” are scorned as repressive and outdated.

The result, according to Mr. Anderson—director of the Social Affairs Unit, an independent think-tank—is a society characterized by rudeness: loutish behavior on the streets, jostling ‘in crowds, impolite shop assistants and bad-tempered drivers.

Mr. Anderson says the cumulative effect of these—apparently trivial, but often offensive—is to make everyday life uneasy, unpredictable and unpleasant. As they are encountered far more often than crime, they can cause more anxiety than crime.

When people lament the disintegration of law and order, he argues, what they generally mean is order, as manifested by courteous forms of social contact. Meanwhile, attempts to reestablish restraint and self-control through “politically correct” rules are artificial.

The book has contributions from 12 academics in disciplines ranging from medicine to sociology and charts what it calls the “coarsening” of Britain. Old-fashioned terms such as “gentleman” and “lady” have lost all meaningful resonance and need to be re-evaluated, it says.

Rachel Trickett, honorary fellow and former principal of St Hugh’s College, Oxford, says that the notion of a “lady” protects women rather than demeaning them. Feminism and demands for equality have blurred the distinctions between the sexes, creating situations where men are able to dominate women because of their more aggressive and forceful natures, she says. “Women, without some code of deference or respect, become increasingly victims.”

Caroline Moore, the first woman fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, points out that “gentleman” is now used only with irony or derision. “The popular view of a gentleman is poised somewhere between the imbecile parasite and the villainous one: between Woosteresque chinless wonders, and those heartless capitalist toffs who are ... the stock-in-trade of television.” She argues that the concept is neither class-bound nor rigid; conventions of gentlemanly behavior enable a man to act naturally as an individual within shared assumptions while taking his place in society. “Politeness is no constraint, precisely because the manners ... are no ‘code’ but a language, rich, flexible, restrained and infinitely subtle.”

For Anthony O’Hear, professor of philosophy at the University of Bradford, manners are closely associated with the different forms of behavior appropriate to age and status. They curb both the impetuosity of the youth and the bitterness of old age. Egalitarianism, he says, has led to people failing to act their age. “We have vice-chancellors with earrings, aristocrats as hippies ..., the trendy vicar on his motorbike.”

Dr. Athena Leoussi, sociology lecturer at Reading University, bemoans the deliberate neglect by people of their sartorial appearance. Dr.ess, she says, is the outward expression of attitudes and aspirations. The ubiquitousness of jeans “displays a utilitarian attitude” that has “led to the cultural impoverishment of everyday life.”

Dr. Leoussi says that while clothes used to be seen as a means of concealing taboo forces of sexuality and violence, certain fashions—such as leather jackets have the opposite effect.

Dr. Bruce Charlton, a lecturer in public health medicine in Newcastle upon Tyne, takes issue with the excessive informality of relations between professionals such as doctors and bank managers, and their clients. He says this has eroded the distance and respect necessary in such relationships.

Tristam Engelhardt, professor of medicine in Houston, Texas, says manners are bound to morals. “Manners express a particular set of values,” he says, “Good manners interpret and transform social reality. They provide social orientation.”

31.According to the passage, the decline of good manners is more worrying because _____.

A. it leads to more crime in society

B. it can seriously affect our daily life

C. people view manners as old-fashioned

D. rudeness on the street cannot be stemmed out

32.Rachel Trickett seems to indicate the term “lady” _____.

A. is preferred by feminists

B. is too old-fashioned to use

C. has acquired a different meaning

D. victimizes women in society

33.According to Caroline Moore, the media has projected a _____ image of the gentleman.

A. favorable

B. humorous

C. negative

D. traditional

34.In Anthony O’Hear’s view, a well-mannered person _____.

A. acts rashly when he is young

B. attaches importance to his status

C. behaves with a sense of appropriacy

D. tends to be bad-tempered in old age

35.Dr. Bruce Charlton would probably prefer to see a more formal relationship _____.

A. among doctors

B. among managers

C. between doctors and managers

D. between doctors and patients

【答案与解析】

31.B  由第三段可知,文明退化更令人担忧的原因是它使人们的日常生活变得不轻松、难以预测、不快。

32.C  由第五段最后一句Old-fashioned terms such as “gentleman” and “lady” have lost all meaningful resonance and need to be re-evaluated可知,旧词汇lady失去了原有的意味,需要重新审视其意思。说明lady的意思有所变化。gentleman和lady虽然old fashioned,但并不等于不能再使用,故排除B。C项内容文中未提及。D与第六段第一句意思相反。

33.C  由第七段此句”gentleman” is now used only with irony or derision可知,gentleman一词如今含有讽刺和嘲笑的意味。

34.C  由第八段首句For Anthony O’Hear, professor of philosophy at the University of Bradford, manners are closely associated with the different forms of behavior appropriate to age and status.可知,O’Hear认为一个文明人的行为要与其年龄、地位相符。可以判断选项C正确。

35.D  在倒数第二段有Dr. Bruce Charlton的观点,他在文章中论述了the excessive informality of relations between professionals such as doctors and bank managers, and their clients,即一些职业人员与他们的clients的关系过于随便,其中提到了医生。医生的clients是病人,所以该题答案是D。

Passage TWO

WHY SHOULD anyone buy the latest volume in the ever-expanding Dictionary of National Biography? I do not mean that it is bad, as the reviewers will agree. But it will cost you 65 pounds. And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31. Of course, it will be answered, public and academic libraries will want the new volume. After all, it adds 1,068 lives of people who escaped the net of the original compilers. Yet in 10 years’ time a revised version of the whole caboodle, called the New Dictionary of National Biography, will be published. Its editor, Professor Colin Matthew, tells me that he will have room for about 50,000 lives, some 13,000 more than in the current DNB. This rather puts the 1,068 in Missing Persons in the shade.

When Dr.. Nicholls wrote to The Spectator in 2006 asking for names of people whom readers had looked up in the DNB and had been disappointed not to find, she says that she received some 100,000 suggestions. (Well, she had written to her quality newspapers too.) As soon as her committee had whittled the numbers down, the professional problems of an editor began. Contributors didn’t file copy on time; some who did sent too much: 50,000 words instead of 500 is a record, according to Dr.. Nicholls.

There remains the dinner-party game of who’s in, who’s out. That is a game that the reviewers have played and will continue to play. Criminals were my initial worry. After all, the original edition of the DNB boasted: Malefactors whose crimes excite a permanent interest have received hardly less attention than benefactors. Mr. John Gross clearly had similar anxieties, for he complains that, while the murderer Christie is in, Crippen is out. One might say in reply that the injustice of the hanging of Evans instead of Christie was a force in the repeal of capital punishment in Britain, as Ludovie Kennedy (the author of Christie’s entry in Missing Persons) notes, But then Crippen was reputed as the first murderer to be caught by telegraphy’ (he had tried to escape by ship to America).

It is surprising to find Max Miller excluded when really not very memorable names get in. There has been a conscious effort to put in artists and architects from the Middle Ages. About their lives not much is always known.

Of Hugo of Bury St Edmunds, a 12th-century illuminator whose dates of birth and death are not recorded, his biographer comments, “Whether or not Hugo was a wall-painter, the records of his activities as carver and manuscript painter attest to his versatility”. Then there had to be more women, too (12 percent, against the original DBN’s 3), such as Roy Strong’s subject, the Tudor painter Levina Teerlinc, of whom he remarks, “Her most characteristic feature is a head attached to a too small, spindly body. Her technique remained awkward, thin and often cursory”. This doesn’t seem to qualify her as a memorable artist. Yet it may be better than the record of the original DNB, which included lives of people who never existed (such as Merlin) and even managed to give thanks to J. W. Clerke as a contributor, though, as a later edition admits in a shamefaced footnote, “except for the entry in the List of Contributors

there is no trace of J. W. Clerke”.

36.The writer suggests that there is no sense in buying the latest volume _____.

A. because it is not worth the price

B. because it has fewer entries than before

C. unless an expanded DNB will come out shortly

D. unless one has all the volumes in the collection

37.On the issue of who should be included in the DNB, the writer seems to suggest that _____.

A. the editors were irrational in their choices

B. the editors had clear rules to follow

C. the editors clearly favored benefactors

D. there were too many criminals in the entries

38.Crippen was absent from the DNB _____.

A. because he escaped to the U.S.

B. because death sentence had been abolished

C. because of the editors’ mistake

D. for reasons not clarified

39.The author quoted a few entries in the last paragraph to _____.

A. give emphasis to his argument

B. highlight the people in the Middle Ages

C. illustrate some features of the DNB

D. impress the reader with its content

40.Throughout the passage, the writer’s tone towards the DNB was _____.

A. bitter

B. complimentary

C. sarcastic

D. supportive

【答案与解析】

36.D  第一段第五句说And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31.由此可知,这一整套书共有31册,只买一册就没什么意义了。

37.A  第二、第三段,作者很明确地表明了在人物选择上的不同看法,并举例说明在选择谁应被收录进词典时没有遵照一定的原则,是不合理的。如第三段第一句说There remains the dinner party game of who’s in,who’s out.这表明作者认为编者在选择对象时就像是邀请参加宴会的一场游戏,证明了编者不谨慎的态度。

38.D  文章只是在第三段谈到了Crippen未被收录进名人词典,该段的最后一句说Butthen Crippen was reputed as the first murderer to be caught by telegraphy. 通篇没有说明Crippen未被收录进词典的原因。

39.A  在短文的最后一段作者先以收录的名人Hugo为例,没有记录其生死年月(dates of birth and death are not recorded);接着说对于画家Levina Teerlinc的描述也不能让人觉得她是位值得纪念的艺术家(Doesn’t seem to qualify her as a memorable artist)。从以上内容可知,作者引用一些条目目的是为了强调说明自己的观点:DNB的编纂方法与内容存在问题。

40.C  作者在文章一开始便指出买最近一册的DNB毫无意义,并分析了相关原因。接着作者在第三、四段讽刺说DNB在选择收录哪些名人的问题上就像做请人赴宴的游戏一样,毫无原则,极不合理。最后一段作者引用了几个名人条目强调说明了DNB的编纂方法与内容存在的问题。作者在对词典的不足之处进行评述时有理有据,并无“刻薄”之心。故选项C“讽刺的”为正确答案。

Section B: Short Answer Questions [20 points; 30 minutes]

Directions: In this section, there are two passages, each with five questions. Read the passages carefully. Then answer the questions by using the information from each passage. Please write your answers on the Answer Sheet.

Passage THREE

How is communication actually achieved? It depends, of course, either on a common language or on known conventions, or at least on the beginnings of these. If the common language and the conventions exist, the contributor, for example, the creative artist, the performer, or the reporter, tries to use them as well as he can. But often, especially with original artists and thinkers, the problem is in one way that of Creating a language, or creating a convention or at least of developing the language and conventions to the point where they are capable of bearing his precise meaning. In literature, in music, in the visual arts, in the sciences, in social thinking, in philosophy, this kind of development has occurred again and again. It often takes a long time to get through, and for many people it will remain difficult. But we need never think that it is impossible; creative energy is much more powerful than we sometimes suppose. While a man is engaged in this struggle to say new things in new ways, he is usually more than ever concentrated on the actual work, and not on its possible audience. Many artists and scientists share this fundamental unconcern about the ways in which their work will be received. They may be glad if it is understood and appreciated, hurt if it is not, but while the work is being done there can be no argument. The thing has to come out as the man himself sees it.

In this sense it is true that it is the duty of society to create conditions in which such men can live. For whatever the value of any individual contribution, the general body of work is of immense value to everyone. But, of course, things are not so formal, in reality. There is not society on the one hand and these individuals on the other. In ordinary living, and in his work, the contributor shares in the life of his society, which often affects him both in minor ways and in ways sometimes so deep that he is not even aware of them. His ability to make his work public depends on the actual communication system: the language itself, or certain visual or musical or scientific conventions, and the institutions through which the communication will be passed. The effect of these on his actual work can be almost infinitely variable. For it is not only a communication system outside him; it is also, however original he may be, a communication system which is in fact part of himself. Many contributors make active use of this kind of internal communication system. It is to themselves, in a way, that they first show their conceptions, play their music, present their arguments. Not only as a way of getting these clear, in the process of almost endless testing that active composition involves, but also, whether consciously or not, as a way of putting the experience into a communicable form. If one mind has grasped it, then it may be open to other minds.

In this deep sense, the society is in some ways already present in the act of composition. This is always very difficult to understand. But often, when we have the advantage of looking back at a period, we can see, even if we cannot explain, how this was so. We can see how much even highly original individuals had in common, in their actual work, and in what is called their “structure of feeling”, with other individual workers of the time, and with the society of that time to which they belonged. The historian is also continually struck by the fact that men of this kind felt isolated at the very time when in reality they were beginning to get through. This can also be noticed in our own time, when some of the most deeply influential men feel isolated and even rejected. The society and the communication are there, but it is difficult to recognize them, difficult to be sure.

41.According to the above passage, how can communication be achieved?

42.According to the above passage, how do creative artists and thinkers achieve communication?

43.In terms of creative artists and scientists’ attitude toward the public’s response to their work, what is their common characteristic?

44.What role(s) does the society play in the act of creative communication?

45.Why do highly original individuals feel isolated?

【答案与解析】

41.By a common language or known conventions.

(由第一段前两句可知,交流是通过共同的语言或者双方都熟知的惯例实现的。)

42.By developing the common language and conventions to the point where they are capable of bearing the artist or the thinker’s precise meaning.

(由第一段第四句可知,创造性艺术家和思想家是通过创造或发展共同语、创造或发展惯例来实现与公众的交流。)

43.They are indifferent toward response to their work.

(由第一段内容可知,创造性艺术家和思想家专注于他们的作品本身,并不在乎公众是否能理解、接受。)

44.The society creates conditions in which original people can live.

(由第二段首句In this sense it is true that it is the duty of society to create conditions in which such men can live.可知,社会的作用是为第一段中讲到的creative artists and thinkers创造生存的条件。)

45.Because they fail to acknowledge and use an acceptable form of communication.

(由最后一段倒数第三句The historian is also continually struck by the fact that men of this kind felt isolated at the very time when in reality they were beginning to get through.可知,具有创造力的人感到被孤立的时候,是他们开始想要把作品的意义传达给大众的时候。再结合第一段中对creative artists and thinkers的相关描述可知,这些人的作品很难理解,他们也往往不在乎大众是否理解。所以他们没有找到一种大众可以接受的交流形式。)

Passage FOUR

Willpower isn’t immutable trait we’re either born with or not. It is a skill that can be developed, strengthened and targeted to help us achieve our goals. “Fundamental among man’s inner powers is the tremendous unrealized potency of man’s own will,” wrote Italian psychologist Roberto Assagioli 25 years ago.

“The trained will is a masterful weapon,” added Man Marlatt of the University of Washington, a psychologist who is studying how willpower helps people break habits and change their lives. “The dictionary defines willpower as control of one’s impulses and actions. The key words are power and control. The power is there, but you have to control it.”

Here, from Marlatt and other experts, is how to do that:

Be positive.

Don’t confuse willpower with self-denial. Willpower is most dynamic when applied to positive, uplifting purposes. Positive willpower helps us overcome inertia and focus on the future. When the going gets tough, visualize yourself happily and busily engaged in your goal, and you’ll keep working toward it.

Make up your mind.

James Prochaska, professor of psychology at the University of Rhode Island, has identified four stages in making a change. He calls them precontemplation (resisting the change), contemplation (weighing the pros and cons of the change), action (exercising willpower to make the change), and maintenance (using willpower to sustain the change). Some people are “chronic contemplators,” Prochaska says. They know they should reduce their drinking but will have one mere cocktail while they consider the matter. They may never put contemplation into action. To focus and mobilize your efforts, set a deadline.

Sharpen your will.

In 1915, psychologist Boyd Barrett suggested a list of repetitive will-training activities—stepping up and down from a chair 30 times, spilling a box of matches and carefully replacing them one by one. These exercises, he maintained, strengthen the will so it can confront more consequential and difficult challenges.

New Jersey Sen. Bill Bradley was a basketball star with the champion New York Knicks. On top of regular practice, he always went to the gym early and practiced foul shots alone. He was determined to be among the best form of the foul line. True to his goal, he developed the highest percentage of successful free throws on his team.

Expect trouble.

The saying “Where there’s a will, there’s a way” is not the whole truth. Given the will, you still have to anticipate obstacles and plan how to deal with them. When professor of psychology Saul Shiffman of the University of Pittsburgh worked with reformed smokers who’s gone back to cigarettes, he found that many of them hadn’t considered how they’d cope with the urge to smoke. They had summoned the strength to quit, but couldn’t remain disciplined. The first time they were offered a cigarette, they went back to smoking. If you’ve given up alcohol, rehearse your answer when you’re offered a drink. If you’re expecting to jog but wake up to a storm, have an indoor workout program ready.

Be realistic.

The strongest will may falter when the goal is to lose 50 pounds in three months or to exercise three hours a day. Added failure undercuts your desire to try again. Sometimes it’s best to set a series of small goals instead of a single big one. As in the Alcohols Anonymous slogan “One day at a time,” divide your objective into one-day segments, then renew your resolve the next day. At the end of a week, you’ll have a series of triumphs to look back on.

Be patient.

A strong will doesn’t develop overnight. It takes shape in increments, and there can be setbacks. Figure out what caused you to backslide, and redouble your efforts. When a friend of ours tried to give up cigarettes the first time, she failed. Analyzing her relapse, she realized she needed to do something with her hands. On her second try, she took up knitting and brought out needles and yam every time she was tempted to light up. Within months she had knitted a sweater for her husband—and seemed to be off cigarettes for good.

Keep it up.

A strong will become stronger each time it succeeds. If you’ve successfully mustered the willpower to kick a bad habit or leave a dead-end job, you gain confidence to confront other challenges. A record of success fosters an inner voice of confidence that, in the words of Assagioli, gives you “a firm foot on the edge of the precipice.” You may face more difficult tasks, but you’ve conquered before, and you can conquer again.

46.What is the main purpose of this passage?

47.Based on the information given in the above passage, define the term “willpower” by using your own words.

48.According to the above passage, what stages do people go through when making a change?

49.On the basis of the information given in Passage Four, comment on the saying “Where there’s a will, there’s a way”.

50.According to the above passage, what is the better way to set goals?

【答案与解析】

46.To introduce ways to build up willpower.

(由第一、二段可知,第三段Here, from Marlatt and other experts, is how to do that:中的that指的是意志力。下文讲的是培养意志力的七种方式。)

47.“Willpower” is the ability to control one’s impulses and actions which can be developed and strengthened.

(根据文章前两段可总结出意志力的定义。)

48.People go through four stages when making a change: precontemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance.

(由第二种方法Make up your mind.下方段落的前两句可知,做出改变要经历四个阶段:思考前、思考中、做出行动、坚持。)

49.The saying is not totally reasonable because one also needs to anticipate difficulties and plan the ways to address them.

(由第四种方法Expect trouble.下方段落前两句可知,“有志者,事竟成”这句话并不是完全正确的,除了有意志力,还必须预料到实现目标过程中会遇到的阻碍,并想好怎么应对。)

50.It’s better to set a series of small goals instead of a single big one.

(由第二种方法Be realistic.下方段落内容可知,目标不能太过偏离现实,定一系列小目标比定一个大目标更合适。)

Part III. Writing [30 points; 60 minutes]

Directions: Based on the information given below, please write an essay of about 400 words on the Answer Sheet. You have 60 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay.

Computer plays an increasingly important role in today’s classroom. One significant impact of the computer on study in that more and more lectures are given in the form of Power Point presentations.

With this growing trend, your university is considering whether or not the traditional way of giving lectures via Blackboard and Chalk should be abandoned. A forum is therefore held by the School Board to invite students’ opinions. Please contribute your point of view to the forum, trying to persuade the School Board to adopt your view, and thus help them make the decision that benefits students most.

Suggested title for the essay is:

Blackboard and Chalk: To Abandon or Not?

You may use your own title if you like.

Marks will be awarded both for your linguistic knowledge (i.e., grammar, vocabulary and organization) and for your ability to achieve the communicative purpose.

【参考范文】

Blackboard and Chalk: To Abandon or Not?

The 21st century has witnessed a great change in teaching method in schools with the advent of computer. Nowadays more and more lectures are given in the form of Power Point presentations in schools. Teachers are able to exhibit the contents of lectures with words, pictures, videos that can be shown in slides. They don’t have to endure the chalk powder any more, which often dirties their hair. But does it mean that there is no need to use blackboard and chalk since computer brings so much convenience to us? I don’t think so. As far as I’m concerned, the traditional way of giving lectures via blackboard and chalk should by no means be abolished because some functions of blackboard and chalk are irreplaceable.

The first favorable function of blackboard and chalk is to lead students to think when the teacher is writing something down on the blackboard. The function is of vital importance in science lessons, including math, physics, chemistry and biology, because there are logic calculations and deductions in these lessons. For instance, it is known to us that there are continuous steps in solving a math problem. While a math teacher is explaining a problem to students, he always writes down the steps one by one so that students can follow him and make sense of the complicated steps. But if the steps are directly shown in a slide, what will happen? Steps appear continuously with short intervals, leaving little time for consideration.

Secondly, while showing slides in a lecture, teachers can make use of blackboard and chalk in case some students may have doubts about the contents shown in the slides. When students have difficulty in understanding some contents of the slides, it is convenient for teachers to explain and write down some hints on the blackboard so that students can understand. The operation on computers is more complicated.

Last but not least, blackboard and chalk can be used in case of power blackout. If the electricity is temporarily cut off, computer is of no use. In this case, it is time to use blackboard and chalk for the smooth teaching in schools.

On the whole, I hold the opinion that blackboard and chalk play an indispensable role in teaching and learning process since the above three functions are exclusive to them. But it doesn’t mean that the practice of using slides should be abandoned. It is a better choice to combine the two kinds of practice for the benefits of students and teachers.

【解析】

作文题目:是否应该摒弃使用黑板和粉笔的传统教学方式?作者认为不应该摒弃这两种教学工具,因为它们具有三项电脑并不具备的功能。一,教师在黑板上一边写一边引导学生思考,这种教学方式对理科学习尤其重要。二,用PPT讲课时,如果学生有疑问,教师写粉笔字讲解更方便。三,避免停电,保证教学活动的正常进行。最后一段作者重申观点,并建议学校同时使用黑板粉笔、电脑这两种教学工具。

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