[电子书]2020年英语专业八级过关必做1000题

[电子书] 2020年英语专业八级过关必做1000题

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作者:冲刺线教育
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更新时间:2019-12-18
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目录

内容简介

第1章 听力理解过关必做200题[听力音频]

◆讲 座

◆访谈/对话

第2章 阅读理解过关必做50篇

◆文化教育类

◆政治经济类

◆科普环境类

◆人物叙事类

◆社会生活类

第3章 改错题过关必做50篇

◆社会生活类

◆文化教育类

◆政治经济类

◆科普环境类

第4章 汉译英过关必做30篇

◆文学作品类

◆文化教育类

◆社会生活类

◆人生哲理类

◆地理风景类

◆人物历史类

◆政治经济类

第5章 写作过关必做20篇

◆社会热点类

◆文化教育类

◆校园生活类

◆道德修养类

内容简介

本书特别适用于参加英语专业八级考试的考生。

本书是专门为提高考生参加英语专业八级考试(TEM-8)成绩而编写的过关必做习题集。本书遵循最新考试大纲的考试内容和要求,按照最新的题型结构设置章节,共分为听力理解、阅读理解、人文知识等7章。每章按照各自的常考题材或高频出题范围划分类别(如阅读理解分为文化教育类、政治经济类、科普环境类、人物叙事类和社会生活类,精心编写了总共约1000道试题,每道试题均进行详细的分析和解答。所选试题参考了大量国内外报刊杂志、文学作品以及人物传记等,试题具有很强的实用性和针对性。

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电子书产品界面及功能

1.电子书产品(电子书、题库、视频、录屏、全套等),非实物,一旦购买无法退换。

2.购买后可在手机、电脑、平板等多种平台同步使用。


以下图片为电子书产品界面及功能展示,非本产品内容,仅供参考。

试读(部分内容)

第1章 听力理解过关必做200题[听力音频]

◆讲 座

Mini-lecture 1

 

Marslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow has developed a famous theory of human needs,

which is in fact a (1) topic and can be arranged in order of importance.

I. Physiological needs: the most (2) ones for survival.

They include such needs as food, water, etc.

To satisfy these needs,the main way is through adequate (3) 

II. (4)  needs: needs for

a) physical security;

b)  (5) security.

The former means no illness or injury;

The latter is concerned with freedom from (6) , misfortunes, etc.

These needs can be met through a variety of means

e. g. job security, (7) plans, and safe working conditions.

III. Social needs: human requirements for

a) love and affection;

b) a sense of (8) 

There are two ways to satisfy these needs:

a) formation of relationships at workplace or some (9) 

b) formation of relationships outside workplace, e.g. with (10) 

IV. Esteem needs:

a) self-esteem, i. e. one’s sense of achievement;

b) esteem of others, i.e. others’ respect as a result of one’s (11) 

These needs can be fulfilled by achievement, promotion, honours, etc.

V. Sell-realization needs: need to realize one’s potential.

Ways to realize these needs are individually  (12) 

VI. Features of the hierarchy of needs:

a) Social, esteem and self-realization needs are exclusively  (13) need.

b) Needs are satisfied in a fixed order from the bottom up.

c) (14) for needs comes from the lowest un-met level.

d) Different levels of needs may (15) when they come into play.

【录音原文】

Good morning, everybody. Today’s lecture is about Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This seems like a physiological topic. [1]Actually it is something psychological. Abraham Maslow is a psychologist, and he is especially known for his theory of human needs.

OK, first of all, what is the need? Here, we can simply define it as a personal requirement. Maslow believes that humans are wanting beings, who seek to fulfill a variety of needs. According to his theory, these needs can be arranged in an order according to their importance. It is this order that has become known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. [2]In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level,are physiological needs Fundamentally, humans are just one species of animal. We need to keep ourselves alive. Physiological needs are what we require for survival. These needs include food and water, shelter and sleep. At this level for us humans, Maslow also includes the need for clothing. How are these needs usually satisfied? [3]It is mainly through adequate wages.

Then what is the next level of needs? [4]At the next level are safety needs, [5]the things we require for physical and emotional security. Physical security is easy to understand. Everybody needs to keep his body safe from injury, illness, etc. Then what is emotional security? Well, that may be the point in this hierarchy of needs, where humans begin to differ from other animals. We are thinking animals. [6]We have worries—what we fear may be losing a job, or being struck down by a severe disease. Besides physical Security, we need to think we are safe from misfortunes both now and in a foreseeable future. How can these needs be met then? According to Maslow, [7]safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans and safe working conditions.

[13]After this stage come the levels of needs that are particular to human beings. The immediate following level are the social needs. Under this category, [8]Maslow puts our requirements for love and affection and the sense of belonging. We need to be loved, we need to belong to a group not just the family in which we can share with others in common interest. In Maslow’s view, [9]this need can be satisfied through the work environment and some informal organizations. [10]Certainly, we also need social relationships beyond the work place, for example, with family and friends. Next, the level of esteem needs. What are esteem needs then? They include both the needs of self-esteem and the need of esteem of others. Self-esteem is a sense of our own achievements and worth. We need to believe that we are successful; we are no worse if no better than others. [11]The esteem of people is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our activities in other social groups. The ways to satisfy esteem needs include personal achievements, promotion to more responsible jobs, various honors and awards and other forms of recognition.

What follows is the top level of this hierarchy of needs. These are the self-realization needs. In other words, they are the needs to grow and develop as people, the needs to become all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs to satisfy. Whether one can achieve this level or not, perhaps determines whether one can be a great man or just an ordinary man. Of course, it depends on different people. [12]The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual. For some people, learning a new skill, starting a new career after retirement could quite well satisfy their self-realization needs. While for other people, it could be becoming the best in certain areas. It could be becoming the president of IBM, anyway, being great or ordinary is what others think, while self-realization is largely individual. Maslow suggested that people work to satisfy their physiological needs first, then their safety needs and so on up the needs ladder. [14]In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied. [15]However, needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next higher level come into play. If the majority of a person’s physiological and safety needs are satisfied, that person will be motivated primarily by social needs. But any physiological and safety needs that remain Unsatisfied will keep playing an important role.

OK, that’s the general picture of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Just to sum up, I briefly introduce to you Maslow’s theory. Maslow thinks there are five kinds of human needs with each one being more important than the preceding one. I hope that you find his ideas interesting and in our next lecture, we will mainly discuss the practical implications of his theory.

【答案与解析】

(1) psychological

细节题。讲座开始时便介绍到,马斯洛的需求层级理论不是生理学方面的(physiological)问题,而是心理

的(psychological)。因此填入psychological。

(2)basic (或fundamental) 

细节题。讲座主要论述的是马斯洛的需求层级理论,而第一个,也就是最底层的级别是生理需求。在谈到Physiological needs时,录音中说“In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level are physiological needs”,由此可知,此处应填写basic,其他同义词也可。

(3) wages

细节题。在介绍关于满足生理需求的方法时,讲座提到It is mainly through adequate wages。因此空格处填

wages。也可以使用意思相近的词,如money等。

(4) Safety

细节题。本题针对第二个层次的需求设题。当录音中说到“Then what is the next level of needs?”我们就应集中注意力听下文,“At the next level are safety needs”由此可知,此处应填写Safety。

(5) emotional 

细节题。紧接上题,录音解释了safety needs所包含的内容生理和情感上的安全,故此处应填入emotional。

(6) worries 

推断题。作者分别对情感安全和生理安全做了具体说明,前者是:We have worries—what if we lose my job, what if I were struck down by a severe disease。由此可推断情感需求关注人们远离焦虑。不幸等,故此处可填入worries或其他表达相同意义的词语。

(7) pension

细节题。在谈到解决safety needs的方法时,录音中说到“…safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plan and safe working conditions.”故此处应填写pension。pension

(8)belonging

细节题。讲座中提到,社会需求这一层级是关于requirements for love and affection and the sense of belonging。因此填入belonging。

(9)organizations

细节题。实现社会需求的方式之一是通过the work environment and some informal organizations。因此此处填入organizations。

(10)family and friends

细节题。实现社会需求的另一种方式是关于工作以外的社会关系,如和家人、朋友之间的关系。因此此处填入family and friends

(11)work/activities

细节题。在谈到esteem needs时,录音中说“The esteem of others is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our activities in other social group”故此处应填写work或activities。

(12). variable

细节题。在谈到self-realization needs时,录音中说“The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual.”根据原文中的vary一词可填入其对应的形容词variable。

(13) human

细节题。讲座中,在介绍完safety needs的时候,提到,“After this stage come the levels of needs that are particular to human beings.”接着才开始介绍接下来的的social,esteem和self—realization的要求。故human为答案。

(14)motivation

细节题。演讲者最后解释了人们产生这几个需求的模式:In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied。本题句子是对该句的同义转述,故此处需填入名词motivation。

(15) coexist

推理题。根据录音中提到的“needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next higher level come into play.”,由此可知不同层次的需求是可以同时存在的,此处可填写coexist。

Mini-lecture 2

 

Five Types of Books

I. Introduction

A. Reading for information, hoping to

— improve our minds with the information acquired

— give us the means to improve our lives

B. Reading prodigiously & reading  (1) : two different things

— to read books that increase intelligence  (2) 

— to read books that helps improve our chances of a happy living

II. The first choice: books about (3) 

A. Including not only scientific text books,but also the books that increase our understanding of the (4) world

B. The value of these books:

— the development of (5) 

— the methods of learning

— how to investigate our intuition and validate it with evidence

— inspiring wonder and respect for (6) 

III. The second choice: philosophy

A. Teaching us to understand (7) 

B. Including:

— the classic philosophical works

— the great texts of  (8) 

IV. The third choice: serious fiction

A. Great works of fiction: containing more  (9) 

B. Fiction:  (10) experiences

C. Serious fiction: containing a lot of philosophy, psychology & history

D. Great fiction: being also great  (11) 

V. The fourth choice: history books

A. helping us to interpret our own times

B. recognizing modern prejudices and the nature of humanity

C. Increasing our self understanding

D. Teaching us that ideas and morality are  (12) 

VI. The last type: poetry

A. Producing a feeling of (13)  for the power of words

B. Great poetry is the integration of music and (14) 

C. Appreciation of poetry: essential for reading

— sharpening language skills

— developing eloquence

VII. Resources

A. No formal set of (15) 

B. The Internet

【录音原文】

Five Types of Books

Good morning. This lecture is going to introduce 5 types of books that can increase intelligence. As you know, we read for information, with the hope that information we acquire will improve our minds, giving us the means to improve our lives. In the modem Age of Information, more reading material is available than ever, making it increasingly difficult to allocate our reading time efficiently. All books are not created equal, and it follows that all readers are not equal either. [1]To read prodigiously and to read profitably are two very different things. A great amount of time is wasted reading books that are forgotten a short time after they’re completed. But time spent reading books that cultivate intelligence and wisdom is a labor that yields continuous benefit over a lifetime. Although it is certainly necessary, for the purposes of business and everyday life, to read about the latest news and trends, that type of reading is outside the scope of this article. [2]My aim is to encourage the reading of books that permanently increase intelligence and, as a result, improve our chances of leading prosperous and fulfilling lives.

[3]The first choice is books about science. Science is not restricted to scientific text books. [4]It includes books that increase our understanding of the natural world. This includes books on commerce and society, with the unifying theme being the use of evidence to explain events. [5]The great value of these books comes, not from the theories they prove which will likely be disproved in the future, but from the development of curiosity and the methods of learning. Scientific books teach us how to investigate our intuition and validate it with evidence. [6]They also inspire wonder and respect for the physical world and for our own intellect.

Then, philosophy comes as our second choice. In ancient times, science and philosophy grew from the seed of analytical thought. [7]If science teaches us to understand the outside world, philosophy teaches us to understand ourselves. It could very well be called the science of human life. [8]In addition to the classic philosophical works, this category also includes the great religious texts. The Bible, Koran, Bhagavad Gita, etc. are not universally valuable because of religious dogma, but because of the wisdom and beauty that has inspired billions to live loving, pious lives. It is an unfortunate modern bias that philosophy is considered irrelevant. Although we worship at the shrine of modern technology, this is still a very human world. Philosophy will increase your understanding of human needs and desires, knowledge that is essential for spreading ideas and predicting human behavior.

The third one is serious fiction. I’d like to permanently discredit the belief that fictional works are inferior because they’re only “made up stories”. Only a person totally devoid of imagination could believe that. [9]Great works of fiction contain more truth than any other literary genre because they allow the reader to experience a new reality. [10]Fiction creates experiences that elevate your level of consciousness. Serious fiction also contains a great deal of philosophy, psychology, and history. Truman Capote said that a good novel is worth more than any scientific study. For the purpose of increasing individual human intelligence, I’m inclined to agree. [11]Great fiction is also great language. And as I’ve written before, reading great language is the only way to become a better writer. It will also make you a better thinker, speaker, and conversationalist.

Moreover, history books are also included. History feels boring because as children it meant dull text books, memorizing dates, and tedious lectures. And who can blame us? The public schools have done their best to take the humanity out of history. But at its best, history is fascinating anecdotes, remarkable characters, and the evolution of ideas that have shaped civilization. By learning about the past we are able to interpret our own times. We are able to recognize modern prejudices and the nature of humanity. Although history may not help us predict the future, it increases self understanding and awareness. [12]It teaches us the timelessness of ideas and morality.

The last type is poetry. I saved poetry for last because convincing you to take it seriously provides the greatest challenge. Poetry arouses images of Shakespearian actors reciting flowery rhymes. It’s no wonder most people think it lacks substance and applicability. But to maintain this opinion is to ignore one of the great joys of human intelligence and underestimate the mysterious power of words. It’s no coincidence that many languages use the same word for poet and prophet. [13]The reading of great poetry produces a feeling that cannot be adequately described, a feeling of awe and reverence for the power of words. [14]Great poetry is the fusion of music and meaning. It is the medium of humanity’s most ancient masterpieces. Poetry sharpens language skills and develops eloquence. Meaning is only half of the great language. The best authors write with a style that is both pleasurable and instructive. An appreciation of poetry is essential for reaching this degree of excellence.

As to resources, [15]I can’t make a formal set of recommendations. There are just too many great books and my experience is too limited. How could I presume to know your tastes or area of interest? What I can do is point out a couple of places where you’ll be sure to find something of interest. Anyone who follows this site knows that I’m a whore for the old stuff. Strangely, the Internet is the best thing that’s happened to old books since the printing press. Bartleby contains an extensive collection of materials that are well formatted for online reading. You should read for self improvement, not to feel educated and superior. Reading, even the most rigorous intellectual type, should be a labor of love. It might be easier to read lighter books, but the moments of discovery created by challenging books are more pleasurable and exhilarating than any suspense novel. If you make an effort to read more profitably, you’ll be rewarded with wisdom, beauty, and many hours of productive leisure.

【答案与解析】

(1) profitably/usefully

细节题。讲座主要讲了五类能够提高智力的书,接着介绍到“To read prodigiously and to read profitably are two very different things.”广泛地(prodigiously)阅读和有益地(profitably)阅读是不同的。因此填入原文中的profitably或同义词usefully。

(2) permanently

细节题。听力中,演讲者提到其目的是鼓励人们阅读讲座中的5种书,这些书能够永久性地提高智力(permanently increase intelligence),以此提高生活幸福的可能性。此处填入permanently。

(3)science

细节题。讲座中提到的第一种书为books about science,故横线上应填入science。

(4) natural

细节题。关于科学图书,演讲者先介绍了其范围:不仅包括科学教科书,还包括能够帮助我们理解自然世界(increase our understanding of the natural world)的书。因此此处填入natural。

(5) curiosity/learning desire

细节题。关于科学图书,演讲者先介绍了其范围,接着谈到了其价值。讲座中提到,这类书的价值不在于其中包含的理论,而在于其激发了人们的求知欲(curiosity),提供了学习方法。由此可知,横线处填入curiosity,或者根据文意填入表示“学习兴趣” 的learning desire。

(6) the physical world/our own intellect

细节题。关于科学图书的价值,演讲者还提到,它们能激发对物质世界及人类智力的好奇和尊敬(inspire wonder and respect for the physical world and for our own intellect)。对照题目可知,横线上应填入the physical world或our own intellect。

(7) ourselves

细节题。第二类书是哲学书籍。演讲者提到,科学和哲学都发源于分析型思维,但科学教我们理解外部的世界,哲学则教我们理解我们自己(ourselves)。哲学也可以称为关于人生的科学。故横线上直接填入原文中的ourselves即可。

(8) religion

细节题。演讲者谈到,除了经典哲学著作,这一类书还包括伟大的宗教(religious)篇章。横线上需填入名词,故将原文中的形容词religious转换为religion。

(9) truth

细节题。第三类是严谨的小说。演讲者指出,伟大的小说作品较其他文学体裁的书籍包含更多的事实(truth),因此此处填写truth。

(10) creating/building

细节题。第三类是严谨的小说。演讲者指出,伟大的小说作品较其他文学体裁的书籍包含更多的事实,因为它允许读者体验另一种真实。小说能提供提升意识水平的体验(Fiction creates experiences that elevate your level of consciousness)。根据题目设置规律,应将原文中的creates变为动词-ing形式填入,故答案为creating或其同义词building。

(11) language

细节题。关于小说,演讲者还介绍到,伟大的小说其语言的伟大(Great fiction is also great language)。因此填入language。

(12) timeless

细节题。第四类是历史性书籍。演讲者提到,历史书籍让我们知道思想和道德的永恒(timelessness)。横线处应填入形容词作表语,故填入timeless。

(13) awe and reverence

细节题。最后一类是诗歌。演讲者认为,读好诗会使人产生一种无以言表的感觉,一种对文字力量的敬畏感( awe and reverence)。故横线上应填入awe and reverence。

(14) meaning

细节题。关于诗歌,演讲者还提到,伟大的诗歌是音乐和意义的融合(Great poetry is the fusion of music and meaning)。因此空格处填入meaning。

(15) recommendations

细节题。关于resources,演讲者提到自己不能正式地给出一系列建议(I can’t make a formal set of recommendation)。故横线上填入recommendations。

Mini-lecture 3

 

Conversational Skills

People who usually make us feel comfortable in conversations are good talkers. Some of the skills of good talkers will help to

a) put people at ease

b) make others feel  (1) and comfortable

c) make friends

I. Skill to ask questions

a) be aware of the human nature: readiness to answer others’ questions regardless of  (2) 

b) start a conversation with some personal but unharmful questions

e.g. questions about one’s (3)  job

e.g. questions about one’s activities in the  (4) 

c) be able to spot signals for further talk

II. Skill to (5) for answers

a) don’t shift from subject to subject

—sticking to the same subject: signs of  (6) in conversation

b) listen to (7) of voice

—If people sound unenthusiastic, then change subject.

c) use  (8) and (9) 

—steady your gaze while listening

III. Skill to laugh

Effects of laughter:

—ease people’s  (10) 

—help start  (11) 

IV. Skill to part

a) importance: make a new acquaintance  (12) you and open up possibilities for future friendship or contact

b) ways:

—men: a smile, a (13) 

—women: same as (14) now

—how to express pleasure in (15) someone

e.g. an extra hand-squeeze, letting people know your feelings

【录音原文】

Conversational Skills

Good morning! Today's lecture will focus on how to make people feel at ease in conversations. I guess all of you sitting here can recall certain people who just seem to make you feel comfortable when they are around. You spent an hour with them and feel as if you've known them half your life. These people who have that certain something that makes us feel comfortable have something in common, and once we know what that is, we can go about getting some of that something for ourselves.

How is it done? Here are some of the skills that good talkers have. [1]If you follow the skills, they will help you put people at their ease, make them feel secure and comfortable, and turn acquaintances into friends.

First of all, good talkers ask questions. [2]Almost anyone, no matter how shy, will answer a question. In fact, according to my observation, very shy persons are often more willing to answer questions than extroverts. They are more concerned that someone will think them impolite if they don't respond to the questions. So most skillful conversationalists recommend starting with a question that is personal but not harmful. [3]For example, once a famous American TV presenter got a long and fascinating interview from a notoriously private billionaire by asking him about his first job. [4]Another example, one prominent woman executive confesses that at business lunches I always ask people what they did that morning. It's a dull question, but it gets things going. From there you can move on to other matters, sometimes to really personal questions. Moreover, how your respondent answers will let you know how far you can go. A few simple catch words like "really?", "yes?" are clear invitations to continue talking.

[5]Second, once good talkers have asked questions, they listen for answers. This point seems obvious, but it isn't in fact. Making people feel comfortable isn't simply a matter of making idle conversation. Your questions have a point. You are really asking: what sort of person are you? And to find out, you have to really listen. There are at least three components of real listening. For one thing, real listening means not changing the subject. [6]If someone sticks to one topic, you can assume that he or she is really interested in it. [7]Another component of real listening is listening not just to words, but to tones of voice. I once mentioned D. H. Lawrence to a friend. To my astonishment, she launched into an academic discussion of the imagery in Lawrence's works. Midway through, I listened to her voice. It was, to put it mildly, unanimated and it seemed obvious that the imagery monologue was intended solely for my benefit. And I quickly changed the subject. [8] [9]At last, real listening means using your eyes as well as your ears. When your gaze wanders, it makes people think they are boring you, or what they are saying is not interesting. Of course, you don't have to stare or glare at them. Simply, looking attentive will make most people think that you think they are fascinating.

Next, good talkers are not afraid to laugh. If you think of all the people you know who make you feel comfortable, you may notice that all of them laugh a lot. [10]Laughter is not only warming and friendly, it's also a good way to ease other people's discomfort. I have a friend who might enjoy watching at gatherings of people who do not know each other well. The first few minutes of talk are a bit uneasy and hesitant, for the people involved do not yet have a sense of each other. Invariably a light comment or a joke is made and my friend's easy laughter appears like sunshine in the conversation. There is always, then, a visible softening that takes place.  [11]Other people smile and loosen in response to her laughter, and the conversation goes on with more warmth and ease.

Finally, good talkers are ones who cement a parting. That is, they know how to make use of parting as a way to leave a deep impression on others. [12]Last impressions are just as important as first impressions in determining how a new acquaintance will remember you. People who make others really feel comfortable take advantage of that parting moment to close the deal. [13]Men have had it easier. They would have done it with a smile and a good firm handshake. What about women then? [14]Over the last several years, women have started to take over that custom as well, between themselves or with men. If you are saying goodbye, [15]you may want to give him or her a second extra hand-squeeze. It's a way to say “I really enjoy meeting you.” But it's not all done with body language. If you enjoy being with someone, if you want to see that person again, don't keep it a secret. Let people know how you feel and they may walk away feeling as if they have known you half their life.

OK, just sum up. Today we've talked about four ways to make people feel at ease in conversations. These skills are important in keeping conversations going and in forming friendships later on. Of course, these skills are by no means the only ones we can use. The list is much longer. I hope you will use these four skills and discover more on your own in your conversations with other people.

【答案与解析】

(1) secure

细节题。本文主要讲述了在交谈时如何使别人更加轻松。录音第一部分提到了一个好的谈话者有一些技能,这些技能能够让别人感到安全(secure),舒服,有助于交友。因此此处填入secrue。

(2) shyness 

推理题。录音提到了一个好的谈话者要ask questions,不管多么害羞的人都准备好了回答问题,故可知答案为shy,但是题目中所填入的词位于介词of之后,所以填入名词shyness。

(3) first 

细节题。在论述提问问题时,演讲者提到了三点技巧,分别是注意他人的性格,问个人的但是无害的问题,能够辨别谈话是否继续的信号,本题针对第二点提问。演讲者通过举例说明谈论别人的第一份工作可以使谈话有趣,故可以从演讲中直接得出答案first。

(4) morning 

细节题。another example是提示语,另一个例子是“I always ask people what they did in that morning.”,所以直接提取答案morning。

(5) Listen

细节题。Second是提示语,暗示下面所讲是使谈话很融洽的另一个技巧是“once good talkers have asked questions, they listen for answers”,故listen为答案,注意出现在小标题里要大写。

(6) interest 

推理题。介绍第二个技巧时提到“real listening means not changing the subject”,因为If someone sticks to one topic, you can assume that he or she is really interested in it,由此可知填入名词interest。

(7) tones 

细节题。真正倾听的第二个因素是“Another component of real listening is listening not just to words, but to tones of voice.”,故此处应填入tones。

(8) (9) eyes;ears

细节题。录音中明确提到,真正的倾听是眼睛和耳朵的同时运用(using your eyes as well as your ears)。因此第8题和第9题空格处填入eyes和ears,二者可互换位置。

(10) discomfort 

细节题。第三个技巧是not afraid to laugh,具体解释laugh的作用时,文中提到笑不仅是温暖友好的,同时也能缓解别人的不适,故直接可从原文中得出答案discomfort。

(11) conversations

推理题。第三点最后提到因为对方彼此不了解,所以前几分钟的谈话可能使人拘束、不安,但是一旦有人笑了,其他人就会在他的笑容里放松,这样谈话就会更轻松融洽的进行下去了,故此处直接填入conversation。

(12) remember

细节题。录音的后半部分提到了结束谈话的技巧,演讲者首先介绍了其重要性,并且提到,分别时留下的印象和刚见面时的印象同样重要,他们决定了别人是否能够记住你(determining how a new acquaintance will remember you)。因此该处填入remember。

(13) handshake 

细节题。录音具体介绍结束谈话的技巧,并分别介绍了男性和女性结束谈话的方式。男性会以一个微笑或一个坚定的握手,所以此处可填入a good firm handshake,由于字数限制,直接填入handshake即可。

(14) men 

推理题。文中随后提到女性结束谈话的技巧“Over the last several years, women have started to take over that custom as well”,过去的几年中,女性也开始采取这种方式,换句话即同男性一样微笑一下或握手结束谈话,故此处填入men。

(15) meeting 

归纳题。文中最后提到,在分别时,可以再次握手,表示“非常高兴见到你”,并且提出除了肢体语言,还要表达出来自己的情感。由此可推出,该处是介绍如何表达很高兴和别人见面。

Mini-lecture 4

 

Why We Don’t Like English Classes

I. People’s misunderstanding of how to learn English

A. An  (1)  process:intention—registration—paying—attending classes; then one will get good English

B. Actually, classes are a (n)  (2) way of learning English.

II. Things students can do at an English class

A lot of  (3) are spent when attending English classes

A. Listening to bad English from  (4) 

B. Having the poor  (5) 

C. Reading a boring textbook

—textbook makes  (6) easier

—but makes learning boring

D. Learning stupid grammar rules

 (7) of so many grammar rules is impossible

—the practice of them in speaking is also impossible

—as a result, test score may be improved but not English

E. Doing useless  (8) 

 (9) the useless grammar rules

—testing English but not teaching any English

F. Getting boring homework  (10) 

—usually a grammar exercise or a composition

—usually you don’t care about the subject of the composition

G. Good pronunciation can’t be gained 

—this fact is ignored by most teachers 

—how to avoid making  (11) is seldom taught

—how to pronounce or use  (12) to learn about

word pronunciation is seldom taught

III.  (13) to replace boring classes with interesting things

A. Watching International or English-language channel

B. Attending a(an) (14)  class or speaking English with friends

C. Reading interesting texts and books

D. Reading and listening to English; increasing the  (15) 

E. Writing compositions for yourself instead of teachers

【录音原文】

Why We Don’t Like English Classes

Good afternoon. Welcome to attend today’s lecture on why we don’t like English classes. It’s well known that English classes are the most popular way in which people study English. They are so amazingly popular that most people do not even think about how to learn English. [l]The process is automatic: I want to learn English, so I sign up for an English course. I will pay some money, sit in class for a few hours a week, and I will get good English. [2]This is very surprising, because English classes are a very poor way of learning English. We have spent a large part of our lives in English classes and we know what they are like. With all our knowledge of English classes and courses, we would be surprised if we met a person who has learned to speak English very well by going to English classes.

[3]If you attend English classes, you spend many hours a week on them. Often, you also spend lots of your money. What do you get for your time and money? Here is what you can do at an English class:

[4]Listen to some bad English. The pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary of other students will be bad. Surely listening to these people will not make your English better.

Say five sentences in English. There are usually 10-20 students in the class, so there is little time for you to speak English. [5]Normal English classes are very poor speaking practice.

Read a boring textbook. Almost all English teachers use textbooks. Want to know why? [6] Because it makes their work easier. They don’t have to prepare for every class. They just do the next unit in the book. [6]Textbooks make teaching easy. And they make learning boring and ineffective. You have to read stupid stories about Michael Jackson or a woman who lived in the African jungle for two years. Then you have to answer questions about them and talk about them with other students. This is madness! All this nonsense that you don’t care about makes you think that learning English is boring.

Listen to a few grammar rules, such as “the present continuous tense is used for talking about developing and changing situations”. Learning grammar rules is the stupidest thing you can do. [7]Here are the two main reasons. First, it is impossible to memorize all those hundreds of grammar rules anyway. And second, when speaking English, you don’t have time to think: “What tense should I use? Let’s see…I want to present the idea of action continuing up to the present time, so I should use the present perfect tense.”You want to use your English naturally. Grammar rules may improve your scores in tests, but they do not improve your English.

[8]Do some grammar exercises. After talking about grammar rules, teachers usually give you some exercises, such as multiple choice or gap filling tests. Grammar exercises have two functions: [9]one, they make you repeat the grammar rules; two, they test your English. The first function is useless because grammar rules are useless. The second function, testing, is okay if you want to compare your knowledge with other people. But testing does not teach you any English.

[10]Get a homework assignment. The homework is usually a grammar exercise or a composition. The subject of the composition will usually be something that you don’t care about. Doing boring things is not going to help your English. It will only decrease your motivation.

In addition, English classes will not teach you good pronunciation. Most teachers completely ignore it, sometimes because their own pronunciation is bad. Some teachers will correct your mistakes when you speak. [11]But very few teachers will tell you how you can avoid making the same mistakes again. [12]Very few teachers will tell you about the sounds of English and how to use a dictionary to learn about the pronunciation of words. Most teachers will not encourage you to read in English, to buy a good English-English dictionary, to listen to English-language recordings. They will just do their textbook and the exercises in it. If your teacher is different, you are lucky. This is what most English classes look like. Think about your classes. If they are like that—boring and ineffective—then you are simply wasting your time. Don’t worry: you are not alone. Millions of people around the world waste their time by going to English classes.

[13]To solve these problems, you can replace ineffective and boring classes with interesting things which will really improve your English:

Instead of listening to bad English in the classroom, turn on your TV and watch CNN International or another English-language channel. You will get lots of perfect sentences in excellent English.

Instead of sitting for two hours to say five sentences in English, [14]sign up for a conversation class with a native speaker. Or start speaking English with your best friend.

Instead of working with a boring textbook, read something interesting. There are so many interesting texts in English! Surf to English-language sites on the Web. Read a good book in English. Simply, read something that interests you. Something that won’t bore you to death.

Instead of memorizing grammar rules and doing grammar exercises, read and listen to English. [15]Input is the only way to learn impressive, natural English.

Instead of writing compositions about the subject that your teacher gave you, write about something that you care about. For example, write some e-mail in English. Don’t write for your teacher—write for yourself!

To summarize, we’ve covered some reasons to explain why students don’t like English classes and provide you with specific solutions. Hope these suggestions will be of great help to you. Thank you.

【答案与解析】

(1) automatic

细节题。讲座开始变提到很多人存在的一个误区:人们不去想如何学英语,而是遵循一个自动的过程(The process is automatic),即不加思考参加英语课。因此此处填入automatic。

(2) poor/ineffective

细节题。讲座的主题是为何人们不喜欢英语课(why we don’t like English classes)。演讲者谈到,英语课已经成为人们学习英语的普遍方式,但这是一种非常低效的英语学习方式。由此可知答案为poor或ineffective。

(3) time and money

细节题。录音材料中提到,每周参加英语课堂,不仅要花费数小时去上课,还会花费很多钱。对应题干内容,可知此处答案为time and money。

(4) other students

细节题。此题谈到英语课堂中的第一个方面。录音中提到,在英语课上听到的英语都不够好,因为其他学生的发音、语法和措辞都比较差。此处应该填入other students。

(5)speaking practice/speaking training/speaking opportunity

细节题。此题谈到英语课堂中的第二个方面。录音中提到,在英语课上只能讲5个句子。接着又说,一般的英语课都不注重口语训练。由此可推出答案为speaking practice或speaking training,speaking opportunity。

(6) teaching/teachers’ work

细节题。此题主要涉及在英语课上阅读枯燥无味的教科书的情况。演讲者提到,教科书使教师的教学工作更加容易。由此可知答案为teaching或teachers’ work。

(7) memorization/recitation

细节题。此题涉及英语课上学习语法规则的情况。录音材料中提到,语法规则的学习是最愚蠢的。因为要全部记住所有语法规则是不可能的。根据题干中的并列选项可知空格处应用名词形式,故答案为memorization,或近义词recitation。

(8) grammar exercises

细节题。此题涉及列举的第五个方面,关于在英语课上做语法练习的缺点。录音中提到,学习了语法规则后,老师会让学生做一些语法练习。可以推断出答案为grammar exercises。

(9) repeating/reviewing

细节题。文中提到语法练习主要有两个作用,第一个作用就是让你重复语法,也就是进行语法复习。根据笔记所在位置及答题规律,此处应该使用repeat或者review的-ing形式,因此此题填入repeating或者reviewing。

(10) assignment/task

细节题。此题继续考查学生在英语课堂上所做的事情。录音中提到,还有家庭作业,通常是语法练习或写作等。可知答案为assignment或其同义词task。

(11) the same mistakes

细节题。关于学生不能在课堂上学会正确发音,录音材料中提到,很少有老师告诉你如何避免再犯同样的错误。对应题目信息,可知答案为the same mistakes。

(12) a dictionary/dictionaries

细节题。根据录音,只有少数老师告诉你英语的发音,告诉你怎么通过字典学习单词发音。因此此处填入a dictionary或者dictionaries。

(13) Solutions/Methods

细节题。此题涉及解决无趣无效的英语课堂的几种方法。录音原文提到,要解决这些问题,我们可以用有趣的事情代替低效枯燥的英语课,从而提高自身的英语。空格处应用名词形式,故用solve的名词形式Solutions或其同义词Methods,注意名词的单复数形式,且首字母要大写。

(14) conversation

细节题。录音中建议到,可以参加会话课,和英语为母语的人对话,或者和朋友说英语。因此此处填入conversation。

(15) input/amount of input/quantity of input

细节题。此题涉及具体的解决方法,即阅读和听英语。录音材料中提到,输入可以帮助学会印象深刻、标准自然的英语。结合题干,可以推断出此处答案为input。

Mini-lecture 5

 

Writing a Research Paper

I. Research Papers and Ordinary Essay

A. Similarity in  (1) 

e.g.—choosing a topic

—asking questions

—identifying the audience

B. Difference mainly in terms of (2) 

1.research papers: printed sources

2.ordinary essay: ideas in one’s  (3) 

II. Types and Characteristics of Research Papers

A. Number of basic types: two

B.  (4) 

1.survey-type paper:

—to gather (5) 

—to quote

—to (6) 

The writer should be (7) 

2.  (8)  (research) paper:

a. The writer should do more, e.g.

—to interpret

—to question, etc.

b.  (9) varies with the topic, e.g.

—to recommend an action, etc.

c. The writer should  (10)  deal with the statements it cites

III. How to Choose a Topic for a Research Paper

In choosing a topic, it is important to (11) 

Question No. 1: whether you  (12)  the topic

Question No. 2: whether relevant information on the chosen topic  (13) 

Question No. 3: Narrowing the topic down to (14) 

Question No. 4: Asking questions about  (15) 

The questions help us to work out way into the topic and discover its possibilities.

【录音原文】

Writing a Research Paper

I think as seniors, you are often required by your instructors to do some library research on this topic or that. And, in the end, you have to write a research paper, right? Then what is writing a research paper like? How are we going to write one? What are the steps in producing a research paper and what are the points we need to take care of? In today’s lecture, I’ll try to answer these questions.

First of all, what is writing a research paper like? We may start by comparing it to an ordinary essay, a form of writing you are very familiar with. Writing a research paper is much like writing an essay. [1]Both kinds of writing involve many of the same basic steps. That is, choosing a topic, asking questions to define and develop the topic, identifying the audience, getting raw material to work with, outlining the paper, writing it, and, finally, revising it. These are the steps shared between research paper writing and essay writing.

Is there any difference, you may ask. Yes. [2][3] What makes a research paper different is that much of your raw material comes not from your own head, but from printed sources: mainly books and periodicals in the library. Collecting raw material, that is reading books and taking notes, is very much like the process of brainstorming at the prewriting stage of an ordinary essay.

Generally speaking, there are two basic types of research papers, and a paper may belong to either type. It may be a survey of facts and opinions available on a given topic or an analytical argument that uses those facts and opinions to prove a point. Your instructor may tell you which kind of paper you are expected to write. If not, you yourself should eventually choose between surveying and arguing. You will then have a definite way of managing your sources.

Now, let’s take a look at how you are going to write a survey-type research paper or an argumentative research paper. [5]In a survey-type research paper, you gather facts and a variety of opinions on a given topic. You make little attempt to interpret or evaluate what your sources say or to prove a particular point. Instead, through quotation, summary, and paraphrase, you try to provide a representative sampling of facts and opinions [7]to give an objective report on your topic. [6]You explain the pros and cons of various attitudes or opinions, but you don’t side definitely with any one of them.

[8]While in an argumentative research paper, you do considerably more. You do not simply quote, paraphrase, and summarize as you do in a survey-type paper. You interpret, question, compare, and judge the statements you cite. You explain why one opinion is sound and another is not; why one fact is relevant and another is not; why one writer is correct and another is mistaken. [9]What’s more, your purpose may vary with your topic. You may try to explain a situation to recommend a course of action, to reveal the solution to a problem, or to present and defend a particular interpretation of a historical event or a work of art. But whether the topic is space travel or trends in contemporary American literature, [10]an argumentative research paper deals actively – I say it again, actively – with the statements it cites. It makes these statements work together in an argument that you create, that is, to an argument leading to a conclusion of your own.

[11]In the next part of the lecture, I’d like to talk about one of the basic steps in writing I mentioned earlier in the lecture. That is how to choose a topic. Choosing a topic for a research paper is in some ways like choosing a topic for an ordinary essay, but there are some differences. As you think about your topic, ask yourself these questions:

Question number one: Do you really want to know more about this topic? This is the initial question you have to ask yourself, because research on any subject will keep you busy for weeks. [12]You certainly do not wish to waste your time on something you have little interest in. You do it well only if you expect to learn something interesting or important in the process.

Question number two: Are you likely to find many sources of information on this topic? You cannot write a research paper without consulting a variety of sources. [13]If only one source or none at all is readily available, you should rethink your topic or choose another.

Question number three: [14]Can you cut the topic down to a manageable size? Be reasonable and realistic about what you can do in a short period, say, two to four weeks. If your topic is “The American Revolution”, you’ll scarcely have time to make a list of books on your subject, let alone read and analyze them. So try to find something specific, such as “The Role of Thomas Jefferson in the American Revolution” or “The Franco-American Alliance”

Question number four: [15] What questions can you ask about the topic itself? Questions help you get the topic down to a manageable size, discover its possibilities, and find the goal of your research, that is, the specific problem you want to investigate. Suppose you want to write about the issue of financing a college education – A topic not only current, but also directly linked to the lives of most college students and their families. You could ask at least two or three pointed questions: How much does educational opportunity depend on financial status? Is financial aid going to the students who need it most? How much should universities and colleges charge their students? You can ask yourself these questions or more as you start work on the research paper.

Okay. To sum up, in today’s lecture, we’ve looked at some of the issues in research paper writing, like the basic steps, types of research paper, and how to choose a topic. In our next lecture, we’ll concentrate on how to identify the audience, how to work out an outline, and how to edit the draft.

【答案与解析】

(1) basic steps

细节题。录音开始提到写论文与写普通文章时涉及到的许多基本步骤是一样的(Both kinds of writing involve many of the same basic steps),所以可直接从讲座中得出答案basic steps。

(2) raw material

细节题。录音中提到论文的不同之处在于许多原始材料并不是来自你自己的头脑之中,而是来自一些出版材料,因此主要不同在于raw material的来源不同,故答案为raw material。

(3) head

细节题。根据录音,论文的不同之处在于许多原始材料并不是来自你自己的头脑之中,言外之意即普通文章的原始材料源于“head”。

(4) Characteristics

主旨题。该题属于笔记第二部分(Types and Characteristics of Research Papers)下的子标题,根据其下一级别的内容可以看出,该子标题部分应该为特征部分的介绍。因此填入Characteristics。

(5) facts and opinions 

细节题。文中提到,对于调查性论文而言,你得收集大量的关于一个话题的事实和观点(In a survey-type research paper, you gather facts and a variety of opinions on a given topic.),故可知答案为facts and opinions。

(6) explain 

细节题。从讲座中可知,“survey-type paper”写作有三个要求,分别是“gather facts”、“through quotation”、和“you explain”。前两个题干中已提到,故本题答案为关于“survey-type paper”的第三个方面“explain”。

(7) objective 

细节题。文中提到“you try to provide a representative sampling of facts and opinions to give an objective report on your topic”。因此作者对论文的报道要客观objective。

(8) Argumentative 

细节题。文中明确提到研究论文的两种形式:调查型和辩论型。该处应该填入辩论型(argumentative)。

(9) Purpose 

细节题。文中提到“your purpose may vary with your topic”,因此作者的目的应随话题的变化而变化,故答案为purpose,注意大写。

(10) actively

细节题。讲座中反复强调,在辩论型论文中,一定要主动地去处理引用的观点。此处填入actively。

(11) ask some questions 

细节题。讲座的第二部分论述的是写报告的其中一个步骤—选题,本题针对选题时的一些准备提问。文中提到“As you think about your topic, ask yourself these questions”,因此决定一篇论文时应自问一些问题,演讲者并在下文具体讲述了这些问题究竟是什么。很容易得出答案ask yourself these questions,但是题目限制最多填入三个单词,故可填入ask some questions。

(12) are interested in

细节题。根据录音,需要询问自己的第一个问题是:关于话题,自己是否想了解更多。后面强调如果自己对这个话题不感兴趣,就是浪费时间。可见第一个问题是问自己对话题是否感兴趣。

(13) available

细节题。演讲者介绍的第二个问题是你是否可以找到足够的材料。并且继续说道,假如只有“one source or none at all is readily available”,就要重新考虑。因此该题应该填入available。

(14)a manageable size 

细节题。演讲者在论述选题时要怎么做时,提出要问自己的四个问题,本题针对第三个问题—将话题缩小到一个自己可以控制的范围(cut the topic down to a manageable size)—设题。直接提取答案 a manageable size。

(15) the topic itself 

细节题。本题针对第四个问题设题。第四个问题开始演讲者就指出其主要内容“What questions can you ask about the topic itself?”,就论文本身写作者可提出什么问题,故可直接得出答案the topic itself。

Mini-lecture 6

 

Study Activities in University

1.Introduction: The process of learning

A central problem in higher education: how to (1) academic knowledge.

Four key study activities have been designed and used.

2.Essay writing: central focus of university work esp. in the humanities,

e.g.  (2) 

benefits: 1) helping to (3)  interesting content in books andto express understanding.

2) enabling teachers to know progress and to offer (4) 

3) familiarizing students with exam  (5) 

3.  (6) and classroom discussion: another form to internalize knowledge in specialized contexts

benefits: 1) (7) enables you to know the effectiveness of and others' response to your speech immediately.

2) Within the same period of time, more topics can be dealt with than in (8) 

3) The use of a broader range of knowledge is encouraged.

4.Individual tutorials: a substitute for (9) 

format: from teacher (10) to flexible conversation.

benefit: encouraging ideas and interaction.

5.Lectures: a most  (11)  used study activity

disadvantages: 1) less  (12)  than discussions or tutorial.

2) more demanding in note-taking.

advantages: 1) providing a general (13) of a subject under discussion.

2)offering more easily understood versions of a theory.

3)updating students on  (14)  developments

4)allowing students to follow different  (15) 

【录音原文】

Good morning, today well look at some study activities carried out in university as we know, students in colleges or universities are expected to master some academic materials that are fairly difficult to understand. However, some of them find it hard to learn some complex, abstract or unfamiliar subject matter. [1]As a result, a central problem in higher education is how to internalize academic knowledge, that is, how to make knowledge your own. In order to do so we must convert knowledge from being other's knowledge to being part of our own way of thinking.

Then how are we going to do it? What's the means available to help us in the process of learning? There are four key study activities currently used in higher education to encourage students to internalize knowledge. They are the ones we are familiar with: writing essay, going to classes and seminars, having individual tutorials and listening to lectures. The four activities are long-established features of our higher education, and they are as important now as they were a hundred years ago. Now let's look at the features of them one by one.

First, essay writing. The central focus of university work, [2]especially in humanities, for example in literature, history or politics, is on students’ producing regular essays or papers which summarize and express their personal understanding of the topic. Then what is good about essay writing? [3]Firstly, writing essays forces you to select what you find interesting in books and journals and to express your understanding in the coherent form. [4]Individual written work also provides teachers with the best available guide to how you are processing in the subject, and allows them to give advice on how to develop your strengths or counteract your weaknesses. Lastly, of course, individual written work is still the basis of almost all assessment in higher education. [5]Written assignments familiarize you with the form of your exams or course what papers will take.

[6]The second key activity in colleges and universities is seminars and class discussions. Their role is to help you to internalize academic knowledge by providing specialized contexts so that you can talk about such difficult problems as the treat of between inflation and the unemployment in economic policy or the use of the metaphors in Shakespeare's plays. Talking is a more interactive activity than written work. [7]In the conversation you know immediately how effective you are in expressing your point and can modify what you are saying in response to people's reactions. In addition, [8]a normal program of between 10 to 25 classes will cover far more topics than one subject. Then you can hope to manage your written work. Participating in flexible conversations across this range of issues also allows you to practice using the broader knowledge gained from other key activities such as lectures.

Now let's take a look at another activity, individual tutorials. [9]Discussions between the teacher and one or two students are used in many colleges as a substitute for or supplement to group discussion in classes like those mentioned before. [10]Tutorials can range from direct explanation by teacher and subject to flexible conversational sessions which at their best very effective in stimulating students' mastery of body of knowledge. The one-to-one quality of the personal interaction is very important in stimulating acceptance of ideas and producing fruitful interaction. In order to make individual tutorial really work, students should make good preparation beforehand, and during the tutorial they also should ask questions to keep the ball rolling rather than let the teachers talk the vacuum.

The last activity is lectures. [11]As we all know, lectures play a large part of most students’ timetable and occupy considerable proportion of teachers’ efforts. However [12]the major difficulty with lectures is that they are not interactive like discussion or tutorials. The lecturer normally talks for the whole time with minimal feed-back from questions. The signs making notes the lecture well-concentrating on the argument being developed is often difficult to some students, especially when the argument is very complicated. However, we have said that lectures are clearly valuable in several specific ways. [13]They can provide a useful overview in every map, as it were, to familiarize you with the mainland features to be encountered during the course. Lectures typically give much more accessible descriptions of theoretical perspectives in their oral presentations that can be found in the academic literature. [14]Whenever there is a rapid pace of progress in theory or practice, lectures play an indispensable part in letting students know the development immediately, usually several years before the new material is included in textbooks. [15]Lastly, lectures are often very useful in allowing you to see directly how exponents of different views build up their arguments. The cues provided by things someone talking in person may seem irrelevant, but these cues are important aids to understanding the subject matter better later.

So far we've discussed four study activities and their respective features and roles in higher education. Of course, study activities are not limited to just these four types. There're other activities that are equally important, such as general reading, project learning, etc. We will cover them during our next lecture.

【答案与解析】

(1) internalize

讲座开始时提到,高等教育中一个重要的问题在于如何把知识内化(internalize academic knowledge)。因此此处填入internalize。

(2) literature/history/politics

讲座中提到,The central focus of university work, especially in humanities, for example in literature, history or politics,也就是说在人文方面,如文学、历史或者政治等领域,写作是一个主要的关注点。

(3) select

讲座中提到写作的第一个益处在于迫使你从书本杂志中找到自己的兴趣点(forces you to select what you find interesting in books and journals),并表达自己的理解。因此本题填入select。

(4) advice/guide

讲座中提到写作的第二个益处是从老师的角度出发,通过你的写作,可以提供知道你处理话题的思路,并给出意见发挥你的优势或者克服你的弱点。本题填入guide或advice。

(5) forms

讲座中提到的写作第三个益处在于通过写作的作业,你可以熟悉考试的形式等。

(6) seminars

关于大学中的第二种活动,讲座中明确提到是seminars and class discussion。seminar讨论会,研讨班。解题是注意拼写。

(7) conversation/communication/discussion

在介绍研讨会及班级讨论时,演讲者提到,In the conversation you know immediately how effective you are in expressing your point and can modify what you are saying in response to people’s reactions.也就是说,在对话中,我们可以更加快速地得到反馈。

(8) essay/ writing

推断题。讲座中提到,a normal program of between 10 to 25 classes will cover far more topics than one subject。通过上文中提到的Talking is a more interactive activity than written work及下文中提到的Then you can hope to manage your written work,可推断,这里是在和写作做对比,因此此处填入essay或者writing。

(9) group discussion/ class discussion/ seminars

讲座介绍的第三种活动是individual turorials。演讲者提到Discussions between the teacher and one or two students are used in many colleges as a substitute for or supplement to group discussion in classes like those mentioned before。也就是说,很多大学使用单独辅导来代替小组讨论如上文中提到的研讨会和班级讨论。

(10) explanation

关于单独辅导的形式,讲座中提到可以是老师进行直接解释(direct explanation by teacher),也可以是很自由的讨论(flexible conversational sessions)。因此,此处填入explanation。

(11) widely/ commonly/ frequently

演讲者介绍的最后一个活动是讲座,其中提到,讲座无论是在学生的课程表中,还是在老师的工作中都占去了一大半。也就是说,讲座是最常采用的一种活动。因此本题填入widely,commonly或者frequently等词。

(12) interactive/ communicative/ feedback

演讲者明确说到,讲座的一大难点在于其互动性较弱(they are not interactive like discussion or tutorials)。因此此处填入interactive等意思相近的词。

(13) overview

讲座的第一个优势在于能够给予课程的大致轮廓(overview),对主要内容进行熟悉。因此该处填入overview。

(14) latest/ recent

讲座中提到,一旦在学术方面有新的进步,讲座可以让学生们立即知道。也就是说,学生们通过讲座,可以知道最新的进步和发展。

(15) views/ arguments/ viewpoints

演讲者指出,讲座这种活动的另外一个优点就是你可以直观地感受到不同的观点是如何来进行进行论证的。

Mini-lecture 7

 

Non-verbal communication

I. Definition of verbal and non-verbal communication

A. verbal communication: the  (1)  we use when we talk to someone

B. nonverbal communication: done by using our bodies, gestures and tones of voice

II. (2) 

A. definition: scientific study of (3)  movements in communication

e.g. gestures, facial expressions, etc.

e.g. speech  (4) and speech (5) , etc.

B. Birdwhistle’s idea: the meaning of nonverbal behavior depended on the (6)  which it occurred.

III. (7)  between verbal and nonverbal communication

A. — (8)  differ between different countries and even different places.

—nonverbal communication has  (9) emotions,

e.g. happiness, sadness, (10) , etc.

notice: many other nonverbal expressions vary according to different  (11) 

B. we don’t know much about the  (12)  of nonverbal communication.

C. There is no (13)  to explain the meaning of nonverbals.

D. you cannot ask for (14)  in nonverbal communication.

E. It is more difficult to  (15)  the true thoughts and feeling in nonverbal communication.

【录音原文】

Okay, everyone, let’s talk about communication. When I say communication, [1]most of you probably think about verbal communication, that is, the words we use when we talk to someone. However, there is another important aspect to communication: nonverbal communication, which is communication done by using our bodies, gestures and tones of voice.

What is nonverbal communication, and how do we study it? [2]Originally, scientists called this field “kinesics.” That’s spelled K-I-N-E-S-I-C-S. This may be a new word for you. [3]Kinesics is the scientific study of body movements used in communication. By movements, I mean gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, the gaze of the eyes, and posture. In addition to these movements, [4] [5]we also communicate with our speech rate, that is, how fast we talk, and the volume of our speech: how loudly we talk. Nonverbal communication encompasses a wide range of actions. Umm...the field of kinesics owes a great deal to one man, Raymond Birdwhistle. His name is Birdwhistle, B-I-R-D-W-H-I-S-T-L-E. In any case, let’s look more closely at some of Birdwhistle’s ideas.

[6]It was Birdwhistle’s belief that the meaning of nonverbal behavior depended on the context in which it occurred. How and where certain types of nonverbal behavior appeared, not just the particular behavior alone. Take facial expressions, for example: frowns, smiles, raised eyebrows, and so on. We all use these things to convey many different meanings. However, those meanings are determined largely by the situations that we are in, and by the relationships we have with the people we are communicating with. In other words, the same expressions, say a smile or a frown, can have different meanings.

[7]Next, let’s take a few minutes to explain how verbal and nonverbal communication differs.

Actually, I would like to go into five different points. The first point I would like to discuss is that [8]spoken languages differ between countries, or even from one place to another within the same country. Most people seem to think that all nonverbal communication is the same everywhere. That is not true. It is not identical the word over, but some similarities do exist. [9]Basic emotions are, however, communicated in the same nonverbal way throughout the world. [10]Accordingly, these emotions are called universal emotions. Examples include emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, things like that. Humans from different cultures express these emotions in the same nonverbal ways. Fear, for example, is universally expressed by opening the eyes very wide, opening the mouth and so on. Although we do have these universal emotions, [11]it’s also important to note that many nonverbal expressions of ideas and protocol do often vary from one culture to the next. Think about how people from different cultures act when they meet for the first time. This type of greeting is done very differently, depending on where they are. In some cultures, people shake hands, while in others, people bow. Some people may hug, and yet others may make a particular hand gesture when they first meet.

Second, although we know a great deal about the system that spoken language uses, namely, grammar, we still do not know much about nonverbal rules in any one society, much less how the rules might interact across cultures. In other words, [12]scientists have yet to fully understand the grammar of nonverbal communication. A big problem in figuring out this nonverbal grammar is that it is ambiguous. As Birdwhistle said in the 50s, the same nonverbal action can mean many different things depending on the situation or the culture. This is not as much of a problem in spoken language, because it is less ambiguous. Nonverbal communication may never be fully understood.

The third difference is that we have dictionaries for spoken language where we can look up any unknown word and have the meaning explained to us. There is nothing like that for nonverbal communication. Let’s look at an example. If you go to a foreign country, and somebody makes a gesture with their hand that you don’t understand, can you check a book for the meaning of that gesture? Generally speaking, it is impossible. [13]Dictionaries or reference books for these nonverbal meanings just don’t exist. Sometimes the same gesture even has different meanings in different cultures. Here in the United States, we make a circle with our thumb and first finger, and this means “OK.” In Japan, this means “money.” And in South America, this gesture has a sexual meaning. There’s a funny, or actually embarrassing story about this particular gesture.

Now, let’s go on to the fourth difference, clarification. [14]Although we can ask for clarification or repetition of what someone says, it is practically impossible to do the same with nonverbal communication. For example, it would be very strange to ask, “Could you repeat that smile again?” Or, “What does that facial expression mean?” Thus we have to understand nonverbals the first time. Repetition is generally not a possibility.

To finish up, [15]although we can conceal our true thoughts and feelings with spoken language, it’s difficult, or maybe even impossible to do so with nonverbal communication. For instance, we can’t stop ourselves from blushing if we’re embarrassed, or sweating if we’re very nervous. And we can’t slow down our heartbeat if we’re scared. Because of this, sometimes the things we say and the things our bodies say, our verbal and nonverbal communication, are different.

Let’s take an easy example. You see your friend, who is sweating and looking very worried. So you ask, “What’s wrong?” Your friend answers, “Nothing.” Do you believe him? Of course not. When this happens, we will always believe the nonverbal communication. Nonverbals are more honest, you see.

All right, I think that pretty well covers it. Are there any questions now?

【答案与解析】

(1) words

演讲者一开始便提到verbal communication,并把其定义为the words we use when we talk to someone。因此该题填入words。

(2) Kinestics

讲座中介绍了动力学(kinestics),并给出了拼写。因此该空格处填入Kinestics,注意首字母大写。

(3) body

根据讲座,动力学是关于交流中使用的身体运动的科学研究(Kinesics is the scientific study of body movements used in communication)。因此此处填入body。

(4)(5) rate; volume

讲座中举例说明了动力学中涉及到的身体运动,其中提到,除了一般的手势、面部表情等等,我们还是用our speech rate… and the volume of our speech来进行交流。因此此处填入rate和volume。两者位置可互换。

(6) context

讲座中介绍了Birdwhistle的观点,其中提到Birdwhistle认为the meaning of nonverbal behavior depended on the context in which it occurred,也就是说非语言行为的意义取决于其发生的情景。因此该题填入context。

(7) Differences

根据录音,接下来介绍的内容是关于语言和非语言交流的不同之处(how verbal and nonverbal communication differs)。因此填入Differences。注意首字母大写。

(8) spoken languages

录音中提到,不同国家甚至同一国家中的不同地区其使用的语言都不同。因此该处填入spoken languages。

(9) universal/basic

演讲者接着说到,相比于语言,非语言交流中一些基本的情感(basic emotions)在世界各地的表达都相同。这些情感也被称之为universal emotions。因此此处填入basic或者universal。

(10) fear/anger

关于基本情感的举例,讲座中提到了幸福、悲伤、恐惧(fear)和生气(anger)。因此此处填入fear或者anger均可。

(11) cultures

讲座中特别提到一个需要注意的地方,即many nonverbal expressions of ideas and protocol do often vary from one culture to the next。也就是说很多非语言表达常常也会根据文化的不同而变化。因此该空格填入cultures。

(12) grammar/rules/system

语言和非语言的第二个不同点在于非语言的语法规则或者系统我们了解得很少(scientists have yet to fully understand the grammar of nonverbal communication)。因此此处填入grammar或者rules或者system。

(13) dictionaries/reference books

语言和非语言的第三个不同点在于非语言交流不像语言一样可以使用字典或者相关参考书籍。因此该题应该填入dictionaries或者reference books。

(14) clarification/repetition

语言和非语言的第四个不同点在于非语言交流不能重复,不能进一步阐明,而语言则可以。该处填入clarification或者repetition。

(15) conceal/hide

关于语言和非语言的最后一个不同点,演讲者说道,虽然我们可以使用语言来隐藏自己的真实想法和感情,但是非语言却很难做到。因此此处填入conceal或者hide。

Mini-lecture 8

 

On Public Speaking

People usually feel terrified when being asked to give a speech

in public for the first time. Following is some advices.

I. My secret: thinking public speaking is the same as any other form of (1) 

—a way of (2)  thoughts with other people

—more  (3)  than social conversation:because you are in control of where the talk is going

II. Two key points to achieve success in public speaking:

A. the subject matter: something you  (4) 

B.  (5) 

—at the beginning: inform your audience beforehand of the  (6) of your speech

—at the end: (7) 

III. some other key tips:

A. be aware of your audience through eye contact.

—look up from your (8) 

—Don’t talk to the wall in the back, or to the window or to the side

—look at a different part of the audience

B. vary the  (9)  of speaking

—underline the words or highlight ideas or phrases

C. stand up straight

—stand in a comfortable, natural way

D. use the microphone skillfully

—adjust the microphone to the right  (10) 

 (11) normally into the microphone

—keep your mouth in the range of the mike

E.  (12) 

—boil your message down to its  (13) 

—“know (14)  to get off”

—One successful example of short speech: Speech by  (15)  in 1960

【录音原文】

Good morning. Today I’d like to discuss with you the secrets of good conversation, that is, how to talk to anyone, anytime, anywhere.

When someone tells you that you have to give a speech, your response may be “I’ve got to do what?” But it’s important to remember that speeches are like anything else in life. There’s always a “first time”. People, even those who are wonderful talkers in a conversational setting, are often terrified over the prospect of giving their first speech. Some are scared about it no matter how many speeches they have given before. I suspect you may have the same experience, or have seen others in similar situations. I give speeches many times a year to groups of every possible description. My secret is simply that [1]I think of public speaking as no different from any other form of talk. [2]It’s a way of sharing my thought with other people. You know, in one sense, [3]it’s actually easier than social conversation because you are in complete control of where the talk is going. At the same time you have to have something to say, of course. [4]This leads us to the first key of being a successful public speaker: Talk about something you know about.

[5]The second key to being a good speaker is to follow the motto of the Boy Scouts—Be well prepared. Never go to a speech without some prior work on it. If you are talking about a subject you know well, as I’ve just advised, preparing the speech itself should not be too difficult. [6]If you let the audience know where you’re going at the beginning, they will follow you more easily through the body of your speech. [7]At the end of your speech, try to summarize your most important points in slightly different words from the ones you used in your opening.

Here are some other key tips based on my own speaking experience and what I’ve noticed in other good speakers. Look at your audience. I’ve already said how important it is to make eye contact. [8]First, be sure to look up from your text or notes. Second, don’t talk to the wall in the back, or to the window or to the side. They are not your audience. Each time you look up from your text, look at a different part of the audience, so the whole group feels they’re being addressed. [9]Note the pacing and inflection you want to use in speech. Some speakers, if they’re reading from a complete text, underline the words they want to emphasize. If you are using an outline or notes, highlight ideas or phrases you should stress in your speech with different-colored pen or something. This accomplishes two things: It guarantees that your emphasis will be where you intended it to be, and it assures your audience that you won’t be speaking in a dull monotone that will put them to sleep, especially if you’re talking after a heavy meal. Stand up straight. I don’t mean that you have to assume a parade ground posture, but stand in a comfortable, natural way rather than hunching over the lectern. Hunching constricts your breathing, and it makes you look bad as well. [10]If there’s a microphone in front of you, adjust it to the right height rather than forcing yourself to stoop during the speech. If you can, check this out before it’s your turn to speak. [11]Talk normally into the microphone. If you speak at a high volume in to it, you will actually be harder to hear. And be careful to keep your mouth in the range of the mike; don’t wave around or turn away to answer a question from the side.

[12]Last but not the least, a speaker has to keep in mind the value of brevity. It’s not easy to be brief, especially on a topic you know a lot about. But in any kind of communication, [13]it’s always worth taking the time to boil your message down to its essentials. That emphasis on brevity applies even more when you are delivering a speech. [14]The show business expression “know when to get off” comes into play again. And the best public speakers always know when. Some of the longest speeches ever inflicted on the American public have been the inaugural addresses of their presidents. [15]However one of the shortest inaugural addresses is also one of the best remembered and most often quoted. It was delivered on January 20, 1960 by John F. Kennedy. Kennedy spoke for less than 15 minutes. We can learn from these speakers, whose ability to talk effectively was central to their success, as is the case with so many successful people in every profession. Brevity is the first thing we can learn from them. If people like Kennedy are willing t o keep it short to maximize their effectiveness as speakers, we should be smart enough to do the same thing.

To sum up, I’ve mentioned several key points in becoming a successful pub l ic speaker, such as good preparation, audience awareness, brevity, etc. I hope y ou find them very useful in making your speeches effective. Thank you.

【答案与解析】

(1) talk

讲座一开始演讲者首先指出问题,即很多人第一次演讲时都会感到害怕,接着然后说道,自己的秘诀就是think of public speaking as no different from any other form of talk。因此该题填入talk。

(2) sharing

讲座中讲到,It’s a way of sharing my thought with other people,这里的it指的就是公共演讲。因此该题填入sharing。

(3) easier

根据演讲者,公共演讲比起社交谈话来说,实际上更加容易,因为你可以控制自己讲话的主题。该题填入easier。

(4) know about/ are familiar with

演讲者把公共演讲和社交谈话进行对比后,接着引出了成功的公共演讲者的要点之一:Talk about something you know about。也就是说谈话的内容必须是自己熟知的。空格处填入know about或者are familiar

(5) well preparation

演讲者讲到的第二个关键点是:Be well prepared。根据笔记的结构来看,此处最好填入名词性短语,与笔记中的the subject matter构成并列,因此此处填入well preparation。

(6) theme/idea

如果一开始就让听众了解你的讲话主题(let the audience know where you’re going at the beginning),那么他们就更容易理解你的演讲。由于字数限制,此处不能直接填入where you’re going at,根据上下文可知,这里指的是演讲的主题,因此填入theme或者idea。

(7) summarize

根据录音,演讲结束时,需要进行总结,因此填入summarize。

(8) texts/notes

演讲者还介绍了一些其他的要点。关于眼神交流,他提到要抬头,不要只看着材料或者笔记(be sure to look up from your text or notes)。因此此处填入text或者notes。

(9) speed/tone

根据录音,演讲时,需要注意the pacing and inflection you want to use in speech,也就是说话的语速和语调。

(10) height

关于麦克风,讲座中提到,需要调整其高度(adjust it to the right height),这样就不需要在演讲时弯着背。因此填入height。

(11) talk

关于麦克风,需要注意的还有Talk normally into the microphone。因此填入talk。

(12) be brief/short

讲座中提到最后需要注意的一点是the value of brevity。根据笔记的整体结构,此处应该填入动词短语be brief或者be short。

(13) essentials

为了做到简练,就需要花时间boil your message down to its essentials(删减只留下基本的信息)。此次填入essentials。

(14) when

做到简练,讲座中一再强调还需要看时机“know when to get off”。因此此处填入when。

(15) John F. Kennedy

关于简练的演讲的例子,演讲者提到了John F. Kennedy在1960年做的一次演讲。填空时注意拼写。

Mini-lecture 9

 

Memory

I. Introduction

Lecture field/area:  (1) 

Lecture topic/theme: memory

II. Three types of memory

A.  (2) memory

—hold information for a long  (3) 

—senses like sight, hearing, touch, etc.

B.  (4)  memory

—be like a  (5)  storage place

C.  (6)  memory

—be stored for a considerable length of time

—behave in the same way despite different time

III. Three ways of measuring memory

A. (7) 

B.  (8) 

C.  (9) 

IV. Three Techniques for  (10)  information

A.  (11) 

—use rhythms, clues, mental pictures, etc. to  (12)  the new information with fixed information

B.  (13) 

—use personal important information to remember

C. (14) 

—be the major key to remembering

—our memories are not  (15) , and we can remember better the organized information.

【录音原文】

Good afternoon, everyone. [1]Today I have the pleasure of introducing you to the basics of one of the most fascinating topics in the field of psychology—memory. What is memory? Where is memory? How does memory work?

The research in this field is fascinating and immense. Oh, we’ll discuss these things briefly this afternoon. I’ll begin by saying a few things about the three types of memory that we all have. And then about how memory is measured and finally I’ll talk about some methods for improving your memory.

All right. First of all, let’s look at types of memory. There are many ways to classify memory, but one of the most common is to classify it based on time. Based on time and duration of use. So typically, memory is generally divided into three types: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. That’s sensory, short-term and long-term. [2]So let’s look at sensory memory. [3]Sensory memory holds information for a long distance. Just to register impressions on one or more the senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. Here is an example of a phenomenon that I’m sure you all have experienced. Imagine that you’re holding up a lightened match or a sparkler on a dark night. Okay, started to move it in circles slowly. Watch it carefully the whole time. Pretty soon, you aren’t just seeing the match or the sparkler; you can see a full circle of light. That’s actually just one point of light being moved around. But your memory of the sensation of the light forms the rest of the circle. That is sensory memory. You can hold something in your sensory memory for just a fraction of a second, then it fades away.

Now, if you want to keep the information for longer than a second, you have to put it into your short-term memory. It’s kind of like tossing a ball from one hand to the other hand. [4]Short-term memory, the second type of memory, is temporary. It allows us to hold onto things for as long as we think about them and for as long as we’re paying attention to them. [5]It’s something like a kind of temporary storage place. Look at the simple math problem in your text: 44+8+10+18. Next, cover the problem or just look away and figure out the answer. Now, don’t look back. Do you all have the answer? Er, let’s see, 44 plus 8 is 52, 10 is 62, plus 18, is 80. The answer is 80. Now, to figure out this problem, you had to use your short-term memory. Now, you see how important short-term memory is, but our short-term memory is just like an echo. If short-term memories were all we had, we will be very limited. It will be almost impossible to function in a normal manner. Well, fortunately, we all have a long-term memory, which brings me to the third type of memory that we’ll talk about today. [6]When most of you think about memory, this is the type that you’re probably thinking about, long-term memory. Long-term memory is involved with information that is stored for a considerable length of time. For example, do you remember what you ate for breakfast today? What about the name of your best friend when you were 6 years old? I will bet you do. This information is in your long-term memory. Even though the time is different, this morning, many years ago, long-term memory behaves in the same way. Memory that is tested after about one minute behaves in a very similar way to memory tested after a day, a week, or even years. There are some scientists who would say that all these memories are part of our long-term memory, regardless of the differences in time. Do these memories change? And if so, how? Well, they do seem to change. We tend to add information to these memories and change them constantly.

Okay, let’s move onto ways of measuring memory. Just as we distinguish three types of memory, there are three main ways of measuring how much a person remembers. [7]The first of these methods is called recall. You practice recalls many time everyday. Here is about what I mean. Take out a blank sheet of paper. Okay, now look at the word list in your text, tutor, drum and so on. Read it silently to yourself. Ok, have you looked at all of the words? Ok, you should have finished by now. Now close your book, write down the words you saw as many as you can on your paper. Go ahead. Ok, that’s a simple recall test. Now most of you probably remembered most of the words, but not all of them. Our memories, of course, are not perfect. [8]The second method of measuring memory is recognition. Ok, you need another piece of paper, or just turn that over. All right, now look at the word list again. Close your book. Now I’m going to say some words. You only have to write “yes” or “no”. “Yes” if the word I say is on the list, “no” if the word I say is not on the list. Ready? Here I go. Piano, violin, flute, trumpet, baseball, soccer, circle, square, daisy. Ok, did you do that? The answers are yes, no, yes, no, yes, no, yes, yes, yes. That frame is a recognition test. [9]Now the third basic method. This method is relearning. In the relearning test, you will try to memorize the list of words, then you would not look at the list for a period of time. Maybe a week. If you’re like most people, you will naturally be unable to remember all of the words after a few days or so. Read the list again and you look at the list second time and try to relearn it. As you should suspect, most people relearn information faster than they learned the first time. By measuring the time necessary for a person to relearn information, we can calculate how much he or she has stored in long-term memories the first time.

[10]Let’s change topics a bit and talk about some techniques for remembering information. [11]One particular method that many people use to help them remember things is called mnemonics, m-n-e-m-o-n-i-c-s. In the mnemonic method, people use rhythms, clues, mental pictures, acronyms, etc., [12]to help them associate the new information with fixed information, information that they already know. This fixed information helps them to recognize the new information and as we have seen, recognition is easier than recall. Ok, [13]let’s look at the second memory technique, personalizing. Personalizing is based on the idea that we remember best the things that interest us the most. For example, say, you want to memorize the diameter of the earth, which is 12, 754 km. How can you remember this number 12, 754? Well, I use a personal method. When I was a boy, my family moved to a new house, the address was 754 Spring Street. So I say to myself, when I was 12 years old, I moved to 754 Spring Street. This works for me, because I’m using personal information that is important to me to aid and remembering a bit of information that may not be as important or personal. [14]The third technique and probably the most important technique is organization. Organization is the major key to remembering. Have you ever studied the foreign language and tried to memorize vocabulary list of unrelated words? It’s difficult to do, very difficult. One way to make this easier is to rearrange the words, so that they have some logical organization. For example, look at the two vocabulary lists in your textbook. Both lists consist of words in Japanese with English translations. Which list do you think would be easier to memorize? The list on the left or the list on the right? Most likely, you pick the one on the right. There words are organized by topic, whereas the words on the left are just random, with no particular order, no particular organization. [15]The point is this: our memories are not random. We do not effectively store memories randomly as lists with no meaning. We can remember better when we organize information when it’s meaningful. So let’s stop here for today. I certainly hope you’ll put today’s material in your long-term memory, or you’re going to have a hard time with the test.

【答案与解析】

(1) psychology

讲座一开始便介绍了主题和涉及到的领域:in the field of psychology—memory。因此此处填入psychology。

(2) sensory

讲座中提到的第一种记忆类型为sensory memory(感官记忆)。因此该空格填入sensory。

(3) distance

根据录音,感官记忆延长了所持有的信息(holds information for a long distance)。该处填入distance。

(4) short-term

根据录音,第二种记忆类型为短期记忆(short-term memory)。因此该空格填入short-term。

(5) temporary

录音中提到Short-term memory…is temporary,并且又继续补充到It’s something like a kind of temporary storage place(暂时存储东西的地方)。因此此处填入temporary。

(6) long-term

演讲者提到的第三种记忆类型为长期记忆(long-term memory)。因此此处填入long-term。

(7) recall

根据录音,测试记忆的第一种方法为recall(回忆)。

(8) recognition 

根据录音,测试记忆的第二种方法为recognition(识别)。

(9) relearning  

根据录音,测试记忆的第三种方法为relearning(重新学习)。

(10) remembering

在介绍完测试记忆的方法后,演讲者进入另一个话题,即some techniques for remembering information(记忆信息的方法)。因此此处填入remembering。

(11) mnemonics

记忆信息的第一种方法为mnemonics(助记符)。由于该单词并非常用单词,演讲者给出了单词的拼写,方便考生进行笔记。

(12) associate

助记符就是指通过一些节奏、线索、记忆图片等帮助把新的信息与已经知道的信息联系起来。该处应该填入associate。

(13) personalizing  

记忆信息的第二种方法为personalizing(私人化)。

(14) organization  

记忆信息的第三种方法为organization(组织结构)。

(15) random

根据演讲者,我们的记忆并不是任意的,对于有组织的信息记忆效果更佳。此处填入random(任意的)。

Mini-lecture 10

 

Meaning in Literature

In reading literary works, we are concerned with the “meaning” of

one literary piece or another. However, finding out what something really

means is a difficult issue.

There are three ways to tackle meaning in literature.

I. Meaning is what is intended by  (1) 

Apart from reading an author’s work in question, readers need to

1) read  (2) by the same author;

2) get familiar with   (3) at the time;

3) get to know cultural values and  (4)  of the time.

.Meaning exists “in” the   (5) itself.

1) some people’s view: meaning is produced by the formal properties of the text like   (6) , etc.

2) speaker’s view: meaning is created by both conventions of meaning and (7) 

Therefore, agreement on meaning could be created by  (8)  traditions and conventions of usage.

But different time periods and different  (9) perspectives could lead to different interpretations of meaning in a text.

.Meaning is created by  (10) 

1) meaning is  (11) 

2) meaning is  (12) 

3) meaning requires  (13) 

—practicing competency in reading

—interpreting meaning in the  (14) of the whole work

—practicing other competencies:

e.g. background research in   (15) , etc.

【录音原文】

Meaning in Literature

Good Morning. In today’s lecture, we shall discuss what meaning is in literary works. When we read novels, poems etc., we invariably ask ourselves a question, that is, what does the writer mean here? In other words, we are interested in finding out the meaning. But meaning is a difficult issue in literature. How do we know what a work of literature is supposed to mean, or what its real meaning is? I’d like to discuss 3 ways to explain what meaning is.

No. 1. [1]Meaning is what is intended by the author.

No. 2. Meaning is created by and contained in the text itself.

And No. 3. Meaning is created by the reader.

Now, let’s take a look at the first approach, that is, meaning is what is intended by the author. Does a work of literature mean what the author intended it to mean? And if so, how can we tell? If all the evidence we have is the text itself and nothing else, we can only guess what ideas the author had according to our understanding of literature and the world. In order to have a better idea of what one particular author means in one of his works, I suggest that you do the following.

[2]First, go to the library and read other works by the same author. Second, get to know something about what sort of meanings seems to he common in literary works in that particular tradition and at that time. [3]In other words, we need to find out what the literary trends were in those days. [4]And last, get to know what were the cultural values and symbols of the time. I guess you can understand the author’s meaning much more clearly after you do the related background research.

Now, let’s move on to the second approach to meaning, that is, [5]meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. Does the meaning exist in the text? [6]Some scholars argue that the formal properties of the text, like grammar, diction, uses of image and so on and so forth contain and produce the meaning, so that any educated or competent reader will inevitably come to more or less the same interpretation as any other. [7]As far as I am concerned, the meaning is not only to be found in the literary traditions and grammatical conventions of meaning, but also in the cultural codes which have been handed down from generation to generation. So when we and other readers, including the author as well, are said to come up with similar interpretations. [8]That kind of agreement could be created by common traditions and conventions of usage, practice and interpretation. In other words, we have some kind of shared bases for the same interpretation. But that does not mean that readers agree on the meaning all the time. [9]In different time periods with different cultural perspectives, including class, belief and world view, readers, I mean competent readers, can arrive at different interpretations of texts. So meaning in the text is determined by how readers see it, it is not contained in the text in a fixed way.

[10]Now, the third approach to meaning, that is, meaning is created by the reader. Does the meaning then exist in the reader’s response? In a sense, this is inescapable. Meaning exists only in so far as it means to someone. And literary works are written in order to evoke sets of responses in the reader. This leads us to consider three essential issues. [11]The first is, meaning is social, that is, language and conventions work only as shared meaning and our way of viewing the world can exist only as shared or sharable. Similarly, when we read a text, we are participating in social or cultural meaning. So response to a piece of literary work is not merely an individual thing, but is part of culture and history. [12]Second, meaning is contextual. If you change the context, you often change the meaning. [13]And last, meaning requires reader competency. Texts constructed as literature have their own ways of expressions, or sometimes, we say styles. And the more we know of them, the more we can understand the text. Consequently, there is in regard to the question of meaning, the matter of reader competency, as it is called, the experience and knowledge of comprehending literary texts.

Your professors might insist that you practise and improve competency in reading. [14]And they might also insist that you interpret meaning in the context of the whole work. But you may have to learn other competencies too. For instance, in reading Molk Rajenan’s The Untouchables, [15]you might have to learn what the social structure of India was like at that time, what traditions of writing were in practice in India in the early 1930s, what political, cultural and personal influences Molk Rajenan came under when constructing the imaginative world of this short novel.

OK. You may see that this idea—that meaning requires competency in reading—in fact brings us back to the historically situated understandings of an author and his works as we mentioned earlier in this lecture, to different conventions and ways of reading and writing, and to the point that meaning requires a negotiation between cultural meanings across time, culture, class etc. As readers, you have in fact acquired a good deal of competency already, but you should acquire more. The essential point of this lecture is that meaning in literature is a phenomenon that is not easily located, that meaning is historical, social and derived from traditions of reading, and thinking and understanding of the world that you are educated about.

Thank you for your attention.

【答案与解析】

(1) the author

细节题。讲座开始提到有三种方法解释meaning的含义,第一种方法就是作者想要表达的意思是什么(Meaning is what is intended by the author.),所以直接提取答案the author。

(2) other works

细节题。文中在介绍第一种方法时,提到了解作者意图的三个步骤。首先去图书馆了解一个作者的其他作品,所以直接得出答案other works。

(3) literary trends

细节题。了解作者意图的第二步就是“get to know something about…In other words, we need to find out what the literary trends were in those days.”,其中need to find和题干中的get familiar with 意思相近,由此得出答案为literary trends。

(4) symbols

细节题。了解作者意图的第三步是“get to know what were the cultural values and symbols of the time”。也就是说,需要了解那个时代的文化价值和象征。因此得出答案为symbols。

(5) text

细节题。演讲者介绍的第二种方法是文本中包含或创造的意义。此处填入text。

(6) grammar/diction/uses of image

细节题。文中介绍了解meaning的第二种方法时提到一些人认为意义是通过文本的形式特征,如语法、措辞、意象的使用表现出来的,所以可从文中直接找到答案grammar, diction, uses of image。

(7) cultural codes

细节题。本题问的是演讲者的观点,讲座中提到“As far as I am concerned, the meaning is not only to be found in the literary traditions and grammatical conventions of meaning, but also in the cultural codes…”,演讲者认为意义不只存在于文学传统和语法规范中,同时存在于一代代传下来的文化中,所以可以直接从讲座中得到答案cultural codes。

(8) common

细节题。意义上的一致在于共同的传统(common traditions and conventions)。本题填入common。

(9) cultural

细节题。演讲者在讲述时间变迁导致对文本意义的解读不同时,提到文化视角的不同也会导致不同的文本意义解读,所以直接得出答案cultural。

(10) the reader

细节题。一方面录音开始部分提到理解意义的三种方法,另外后面做具体介绍时也提到第三种方法,即“Now, the third approach to meaning, that is, meaning is created by the reader”。

(11) social

细节题。介绍meaning第三种方法时,文中提到“This leads us to consider three essential issues”,而后具体介绍了三个方面,本题针对第一个方面提问。第一个是“The first is, meaning is social...”。很显然,本题答案为social。

(12) contextual

细节题。meaning的第二个方面是contexual。很显然,本题答案为contexual。

(13) reader competency

细节题。在介绍第三个方面时,文中提到“And last, meaning requires reader competency.”可知答案为reader competency。

(14) context

细节题。演讲者在介绍“理解的能力”时提到,需要在整个作品的情景下来进行释意(interpret meaning in the context of the whole work)。因此此处填入context。

(15) social structure/traditions of writing/political, cultural influences, etc.

细节题。演讲者在介绍“理解还需要其他能力”时通过举例提到三个方面“in reading Molk Rajenan’s The Untouchables, you might have to learn what the social structure of India...”“what traditions of writing were in practice” “what political, cultural and personal influences...”概括可得出“social structure”或“traditions of writing”或“political, cultural influences”。

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