the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical
instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes,
theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the
great classical musicians of the 20th century.
本句主干是classical instrumentalists ... compete with...。第一部分是for引导的介词短语作状语，说明目的。第二部分虽然句子很长，但结构较简单，其宾语是由表示递进关系的关联词组not only...but also连接的两部分，of the 20th century做后置定语修饰musicians。
B. The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined
with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and
present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.
两个或两个以上的简单句用并列连词连在一起构成的句子，叫做并列句，其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。并列连词有：and, but, or, so等。并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要，相互之间没有从属关系，是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词连结。如：
A. The role of natural selection in evolution was
formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role
of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is
only beginning to be recognized and studied.
B. Children will play with dolls equipped with
personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as
workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television,
and digital age will have arrived.
这是一个由四个并列句组成的句子。equipped with personality chips作定语修饰dolls。
have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find
and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most of the work
B. Meanwhile, many settles had slighter religious commitments
than Dane’s, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast
who mocked that they had not come to the New World for religion.
A. In his latest
book, Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We
Should, Like, Care, John McWhorter, a linguist and controversialist of
mixed liberal and conservative views, sees the triumph of 1960s counter-culture
as responsible for the decline of formal English.
插入语Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why
We Should, Like, Care是his latest book的同位语；a linguist and
controversialist of mixed liberal and conservative views是插入语，说明John McWhorter的身份。
B. While in
America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline—after the mass
redundancies caused by downsizing in the late-80s—and is still linked to the
politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class downshifters of
my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.
破折号中间是插入语，对前面进行补充说明；第二部分，at least... acquaintance也是插入语，来进一步补充说明，为前面讲的话留有余地。
grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the
family tree or the pathway tracked through it, whereas Greenbergian
universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of
本句是由whereas连接的并列结构。第一部分that引导的定语从句that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked
of language change。
B. Unhappy parents
rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy
childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most
important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of
the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.
And since these
messages have an agenda—to lure us to open our wallets— they make the very idea
of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis
drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks.