1. Only people over 18 are eligibleto vote.
2. The latest car model embodies thenew research development.
3. The coastal area has very mildwinter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.
4. She is an artist whose work will undoubtedly withstand thetest of time.
5. He wore a shabby thin overcoat in the cold winter so thathe fell ill.
6.The weather was so gorgeous that many people went outing.
7.Competitors must abide by the judge’s decision.
8. The umbrella was ingeniously devised to fold up into thepocket.
9.Some newspapers in the west are notably biased.
10.His answers were obscure and confusing.
11. The way she looked after her youngsister was really touching
12. We are worried about this fluidsituation filled with uncertainty.
13. They have built canals to irrigatethe desert.
14. The details of the costume were totallyauthentic.
15. The new garment fits herperfectly.
For many young Americans, graduating fromcollege means finding a job, moving out of the dorm room and beginning toregister one’s annual earnings with the US government.
That last item is the law, though sometimesit’s a hassle (难事)to obey.
Independent tax advisor Bob Gilbert callsthe US income tax system “amazingly complicated”. But he adds that “very littleof the complicated tax law applies to young people who are just beginning theircareers”. According to Gilbert, 80 to 90 percent of Americans are not reallyburdened by the system’s complications.
Still, all the numbers and forms can be alittle confusing to those who are just starting their careers. Some pull outtheir calculators and try to do the math alone. Some use income tax software.Others just hand the whole responsibility over to tax firms like Gilbert’s.According to income tax law expert Linda Beale, young people will often followtheir parents’ lead when filling their income forms.
“Young people who grow up in wealthyhouseholds typically use professional tax services because their parents havealways done so,” said Beale, a professor at Wayne State University in Michigan State.
“On the other hand, most poorer youngpeople probably try to do their own taxes, unless they want a quick ‘refund’with the help of a tax advisor”.
In fact, obeying the law has its benefits.For one, many young people can expect a tax refund. This means that, over thecourse of the year, they have paid too much in monthly federal or state taxesand are entitled to the difference.
Bob Thalman, a 20-year-old universitystudent, expects he will get a refund of about 100, which will probably go inthe bank, or perhaps be used to pay for car insurance or credit card bills.
Thalman called the whole process a “hassle”,but added that he didn’t want to test the law by not filling his income taxpapers.
“I’m worried about what would happen if Ifailed to file,” he said. “I know one individual who did not report his incometax for many years, and he’s now in federal prison. I certainly don’t wantthat.”
16. A college student with a part-time jobis not required to file an income tax form.
C. Not mentioned
17. The US income tax system does not whollyapply to a college graduate who is just beginning his or her career.
C. Not mentioned
18. It’s pretty easy for a beginner toreport his or her income tax.
C. Not mentioned
19. When young people file their income taxform, they will often follow in their parents’ footsteps.
C. Not mentioned
20. Young people from poorer families needn’tfile their income tax forms.
C. Not mentioned
21. If one has failed to report his or herincome tax for quite a few years, he or she may be put in prison.
C. Not mentioned
22. The US income tax system will besimplified in the next few years.
C. Not mentioned
17.A 定位：根据关键词apply to和just beginning his or her career定位到第三段第二句。
19.A 定位：根据关键词follow in their parents’ footsteps定位第四段最后一句和第五段。
点睛：根据第四段最后一句“young peoplewill often follow their parents’ lead when filling their income forms”可知，年轻人在填税务表时往往会追随他们的父母，因此本题选A项。
20.B 定位：根据young people from poorerfamilies定位到第六段。
21.A 定位：根据failed to report his or her income tax及put in prison定位到最后一段。
1. A hundred years ago this week, agigantic explosion ripped (撕裂) open the day above a forest in western Siberia, leaving ascientific riddle that endures to this day.
2. A dazzling light pierced the heavens,followed by a shock wave as strong as 1,000 atomic bombs. The explosionflattened 80 million trees across an area of 2,000 square kilometers. Thefireball was so great that, a day later, Londoners could read their newspapersunder the night sky. What caused the so-called Tunguska Event, named after thenearby Podkamennaya Tunguska river, still remains a mystery.
3. Experts suspect it was a rock that,after traveling in space for millions of years, was destined to crash to Earthat exactly 7:17 a.m. on June 30, 1908. This possibility worries scientists. “Imaginean unspotted asteroid (小行星) hitting a significant chunk (块) of land... and imagine if that area, unlike Tunguska, werepopulated,” the British science journal Nature commented recently.
4. But no fragments of the “rock” have everbeen found. Finding such evidence would be important, for it would increase ourknowledge about the risk posed by dangerous Near Earth Objects (NEOs), sayItalian researchers Luca Gasperini, Enrico Bonatti and Giuseppe Longo. When thenext Tunguska NEO approaches, scientists will have to decide whether to try todeflect (使偏转) it orblow it up in space.
5. However, several rival theories for theTunguska Event exist. Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University,believes the Tunguska Event was caused by a massive escape of 10 million tonsof methane (甲烷)-richgas from deep within earth’s crust. Some people hold that the explosion wascaused by an alien spaceship crash, or a black hole in the universe.
27. The gigantic explosion that occurred ahundred years ago _____.
28. The shock wave which followed thedazzling light _____.
29. The hypothesis that the explosion wascaused by a rock colliding with the Earth _____.
30. Wolfgang Kundt, who has developed analternative theory _____.
24.F 第三段首先提到科学家推测的碰撞理论，接着提到“This possibility worries scientists”，并具体介绍了科学家所担忧的事情，由此可知，F项“使科学家担忧的解释”符合本段大意，因此选F项。
25.E 第四段第二句就提到了“Finding such evidence would be important”，并给出了具体的理由，由此可知，E项“找到证据的重要性”符合本段主要内容，因此本题选E项。
27.A 点睛：根据第一段“A hundred years ago this week, a gigantic explosion…leaving a scientificriddle that endures to this day” 可知，爆炸至今仍然是一个谜团，因此本题选A项。
28.D 定位：根据关键词shock wave和dazzling light定位到第二段。
29.B 定位：根据关键词hypothesis和caused by a rock定位到第三段和第四段。
30.C 定位：根据关键词Wolfgang Kundt定位到第五段第二句。
点睛：根据第五段第二句“Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University”可知，本题选C项。
第一篇 Sports Star Yao Ming
If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports starin the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26 m, he is the tallestplayer in the National Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most toweringOlympian ever to compete in the Games.
But what really stands out about the giantcenter is his celebrity (名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for hisbasketball prowess (杰出的才能) but also for being a symbol of international commerce.
When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as theNo. 1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft (选拔), he was the first international player ever to be selected first.His assets on the court are clear enough —no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he isa handful (难对付的人)for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to theRockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge tomillions of potential basketball fans in China.
When it was announced in February that Yaowould miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stressfracture (骨折) inhis left foot, a collective shudder (震动) spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tinyscrews across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. Thesurgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period willleave him little time to prepare with Team China, Yao has vowed to be ready forthe Beijing Olympics.
Yao wrapped up a10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinesemedicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process. Westernexperts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits, although new research fromthe university of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived fromshellfish may speed stimulate bone repair.
“There is no reason to dismiss TCM,” Yao told a press conference in Beijing. “It’s been used in our country for thousands ofyears. I don’t think that it’s short on science.”
31. The word “towering” in Paragraph 1means____.
32. Opponents find it very difficult tocontrol Yao Ming because of his____.
33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCMtreatments because____.
A. his right foot had beenhurting
B. he wanted to make a morerapid recovery
C. the surgical operation hadbeen a failure
D. he couldn"t afford all themedical expenses
34. Which statement about Yao Ming is NOTtrue?
A. He missed the AthensOlympics.
B. He is an NBA player.
C. He fractured his left foot.
D. He is an internationalfigure.
35. In general, the Western experts’attitude towards TCM is____.
32.A 定位：根据关键词opponents和difficult to control定位到第三段第二句。
点睛：根据第三段第二句中的“no NBA playerof his size has ever possessed his mobility”，可知，由于姚明身材高大且移动迅速，他很难对付。因此本题选A项。
33.B 定位：根据关键词a series of TCM treatment定位到最后两段。
点睛：根据倒数第二段第一句中的“hoping toaccelerate his recovery process”可知，姚明之所以接受中医药治疗是为了快速恢复，因此本题选B项。
35.D 定位：根据关键词western experts’ attitude和TCM定位到最后两段。
点睛：根据倒数第二段最后一句可知，“Western expertsare generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits”，skeptical意思为“怀疑的”，因此本题选D项。
第二篇 Black Holes Trigger Stars to Self-Destruct
Scientists have long understood that supermassive black holes weighing millions or billions of suns can tear apart starsthat come too close. The black hole"s gravity pulls harder on the nearest partof the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes orhours, once it gets close enough.
Scientists say this uneven pulling is not theonly hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can alsotrigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within.Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such anunfortunate star"s life, as it veered towards a super massive black hole.
When the star gets close enough, the unevenforces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggestedthis flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the starenough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But otherstudies had suggested that the picture would be complicated by shock wavesgenerated during the flattening process and that no nuclear explosion shouldoccur.
The new simulations investigated theeffects of shock waves in detail, and found that even when their effects areincluded, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosionof the star—it willbe completely destroyed,” Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates thestar, it saves some of the star"s matter from being devoured by the black hole.The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star"s matter out of theblack hole"s reach, he says.
The devouring of stars by black holes mayalready have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought thatseveral months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter startsswirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultravioletlight and X-rays.
If stars disrupted near black holes reallydo explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at amuch earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible to see the disruption of that starimmediately if it gets hot enough,” he says.
Brassart agrees. “Perhaps it can beobserved in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it’s something that needs to be morestudied,” he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos NationalLaboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars aredifficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proventheir Case that they explode in the process.
36. Something destructive could happen to astar that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following destructivestatements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. The black hole could tear apart thestar.
B. The black hole could trigger a nuclearexplosion in the star.
C. The black hole could dwindle its sizeconsiderably.
D. The black hole could devour the star.
37. According to the third paragraph,researchers differed from each other in the problem of____.
A. whether nuclear reaction would occur
B. whether the stars would increase itsdensity and temperature
C. whether shock waves would occur
D. whether the uneven forces would flattenthe stars
38. According to the fourth paragraph,which of the following is NOT true?
A. No nuclear explosion would be triggeredinside the star.
B. The star would be destroyed completely.
C. Much of the star’s matter thrown by theexplosion would be beyond the black hole’s reach.
D. The black hole would completely devourthe star.
39. What will happen several months afterthe explosion of the star?
A. The star’s matter will move further awayfrom by the black hole.
B. The black hole’s matter will heat up.
C. The torn star’s matter will swirl intothe black hole.
D. The black hole’s matter will releaseultraviolet light and X-rays.
40.According to the context, the word “disruption”in Paragraph 6 means____.
B. “Tearing apart”
36.C 点睛：根据第一段第一句“black holes…can tear apart stars that come too close”可知，A项文章中有提及，因此排除A项。同时，根据第二段第二句可知，有可能诱发恒星内部的核爆炸，因此B项也应该排除。另外，文章第五段第一句介绍了黑洞吞噬恒星的情况，因此D项排除。只有C项文中没有提及，因此选C项。
37.A 点睛：根据第三段最后一句可知，有研究表明由于冲击波的影响，“no nuclear explosion should occur”，由此可知，关于是否引发核爆炸，科学家之间存在分歧，因此选A项。
39.C 定位：根据关键词several months可定位到第五段。
第三篇 Don’t Count on Dung
Conservationists(自然保护主义者) may be miscalculatingthe numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants, say African andAmerican researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way theyestimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪) the creatures leave behind.
The mistake could lead researchers to thinkthat there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions,according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in New York.
Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, agrees. “We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that wehave is quite indirect,” says Payne, who electronically tracks elephants.
Counting elephants from planes isimpossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers oftenestimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They alsoneed to know the rate at which dung decays: Because it’s extremely difficult todetermine these rates, however, researchers counting elephants in one regiontend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.
But researchers at the WCS have found thatthis decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate andenvironment. Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道), says Plumptre.
He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanjistudied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon. They found that thedung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in therainforests of neighbouring Gabon. If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon, they would probably find more elephants than are actuallyaround. This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high asthose derived from decay rates calculated locally, says Plumptre. “Howeveraccurate your dung density estimate might be, the decay rate can severelyaffect the result.”
Plumptre also says that the dung-pilecensus should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant’snatural range. The usual technique of monitoring only small, protected areasdistorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions, he says. “If the elephant populationincreases within the protected area, you cannot determine whether it is a realincrease or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are beingpoached(入侵偷猎)outside.”
Plumptre says thatsimilar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely onindirect evidence such as nests, tracks or burrows(地洞).
41. The word “threatened” in the firstsentence of the first paragraph could be best replaced by____.
42. Piles of dung can’t be relied upon whenit comes to estimating elephant numbers because____.
A. they are different in size
B. they scatter all over the region
C. they are different in decay rate
D. they are different in quality
43. Why do researchers estimate elephantnumbers in an area by counting dung piles?
A. Because elephants are difficult tocatch.
B. Because it is not possible to countelephants from a plane.
C. Because it is not possible to keep trackof elephants.
D. Because elephants are shy animals.
44. According to Plumptre, the region overwhich a dung-pile census is carried out should be____.
A. small enough
B. well protected
C. carefully monitored
D. large enough
45. The first word "He" inparagraph 6 refers to____.
A. Andrew Plumptre
B. Katy Payne
C. Anthony Chifu Nchanji
D. the writer of the article
42.C 点睛：原文第四段说到，通过数粪堆来估计大象的数量还要考虑到粪堆的衰变速率。并且，原文第五段的第一句话又明确说到，“...this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climateand environment…”由此可知，本题的正确答案为C项。
43.B 点睛：原文第四段的前两句话明确说到，“Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforestsof Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by countingdung piles in a given area”，也就是说，研究人员不得不通过大象粪便估计大象数量的原因是由于从飞机上数大象不可能的。由此可知，本题的正确答案为B。
44.D 定位：根据关键词Plumptre、the region和a dung-pile census定位到原文倒数第二段。
点睛：原文倒数第二段的第一句话就明确说到，“Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried outover a region similar in size to an elephant’s natural range.”他认为普查的地区的大小应该与大象的自然范围类似。并且根据后文分析的监测区域过小的弊端可知，Plumptre认为统计区域应该要足够大。因此，本题的正确答案为D。
Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing has existed for thousands of yearsand has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steambath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouringwater over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath. 46 Dryheat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americansused sweat lodges.
The earliest saunas were probablyunderground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimneymaking was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rockwalls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the caveand the stones would retain heat for several hours. 47 Todaymost saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves areavailable.
Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving.Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain andinflammation(炎症).Asthma(气喘)patientsfind that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitatesbreathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviatecongestion(阻塞) andspeed recovery time. 48 The sauna could beconsidered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever".The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in thefirst place.
Sauna is good for your skin as the bloodflow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs ofwater per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime frompores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporaryas the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes. 49 Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to100-150 beats per minute.
A normal heart can handle these stressesbut those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek adoctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with theirdoctor prior to beginning to take saunas. 50 Indeed,everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to becomeaccustomed to this type of bath.
A.an extra large sauna and steam room canbe used for players to relax in.
B. The cardiovascular system gets a workout as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface forheat exchange.
C. The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russiansas well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathingrituals.<