[电子书]2018年职称英语等级考试综合类A级考试题库历年真题模拟试题

2018年职称英语等级考试综合类A级考试题库历年真题模拟试题
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第一部分 历年真题

2016年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题l分,共15分)

 下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1. Only people over 18 are eligibleto vote.

A.honest

B. qualified

C.enabled  

D. clever

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:只有超过18岁的人有资格投票。eligible合适的;在(法律上或道德上)合格的。qualified有资格的,胜任的,适当的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。honest诚实的。enabled激活的;可行的。clever聪明的。

2. The latest car model embodies thenew research development.

A.lists 

B. includes

C.borrows 

D. broadens

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:最新的汽车模型代表了最新的研究进展。embody使具体化;包含;代表,体现。include包括;包含。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。list列出,列入。borrow借。broaden扩大,扩展。

3. The coastal area has very mildwinter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.

A.severe 

B. hard

C.warm  

D. dry

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:沿海地区冬天气温温暖,但是中部平原地区却极度寒冷。mild温暖的;温柔的。warm温暖的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。severe严峻的,严厉的。hard困难的,硬的。dry干的。

4. She is an artist whose work will undoubtedly withstand thetest of time.

A. grade   

B. attract

C.bear

D. suffer

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:她是一位艺术家,其作品无疑将经受住时间的考验。withstand经受,承受,禁得起。bear承担;忍受。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。grade评分;安排;依序排列。attract吸引。suffer遭受。

5. He wore a shabby thin overcoat in the cold winter so thathe fell ill.

A. old 

B. big

C.new 

D. small

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:寒冷的冬天他只穿了一件薄薄的旧外套,以致于他生病了。shabby卑鄙的; 破旧的,衣衫褴褛的。old旧的;古老的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。

6.The weather was so gorgeous that many people went outing.

A. uncontrollable

B. pleasant

C.cloudy 

D. unbearable

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:天气真好,许多人都外出游玩。gorgeous华丽的;极好的,称心的;令人愉快的,令人享受的。pleasant令人愉快的;有趣的;晴朗的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。uncontrollable不可控;无法控制的。cloudy多云的;阴天的。unbearable难以忍受的;承受不住的。

7.Competitors must abide by the judge’s decision.

A. keep 

B. read

C.understand

D. obey

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:竞争者必须遵守裁判的决定。abide by遵守;信守;接受。obey遵守,遵循;服从。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选D项。

8. The umbrella was ingeniously devised to fold up into thepocket.

A. seriously 

B. cleverly

C.attentively

D. carefully

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这把伞设计精巧,可以叠起来放进口袋里。ingeniously有才能地;制作精巧地,巧妙地。cleverly巧妙地;聪明地;灵巧地。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。seriously严重地;认真地;严肃地。attentively注意地;聚精会神地;周到地。carefully小心地。

9.Some newspapers in the west are notably biased.

A. especially  

B. wholly

C.totally 

D. fairly

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:西方一些报纸特别有偏见。notably显著地;尤其。especially特别;尤其。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。wholly完全地;全部。totally完全地。fairly相当地;公平地。

10.His answers were obscure and confusing.

A. unclear  

B. obvious

C.clear 

D. direct

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他的回答模糊令人不解。obscure朦胧的;晦涩的,不清楚的。unclear不清楚的;不易了解的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。obvious明显的。clear清楚的。direct直接的。

11. The way she looked after her youngsister was really touching

A.disturbing 

B. connecting

C.moving

D. waving

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:她照顾她妹妹的方式真的很感人。touching动人的,令人同情的。moving动人的;活动的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。disturbing令人不安的;烦扰的。connecting连接的。waving波浪状的。

12. We are worried about this fluidsituation filled with uncertainty.

A.stable 

B. suitable

C. changeable 

D. adaptable

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:对于这个充满不确定的不稳定的情况,我们感到担忧。fluid易变的,不固定的;流动的。changeable易变的;可变的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。stable稳定的。suitable合适的,适当的。adaptable可适应的;有适应能力的。

13. They have built canals to irrigatethe desert.

A.decorate 

B. change

C.visit 

D. water

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:他们必须修建沟渠灌溉沙漠。irrigate灌溉。water给……浇水。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选D项。decorate装饰。change改变。visit访问;参观。

14. The details of the costume were totallyauthentic.

A.outstanding 

B. real

C.creative 

D. false

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这件古装的每个小地方都完全真实。authentic真的,真正的。real真的;真实的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。outstanding杰出的;显著的。creative创造性的,有创造力的。false虚伪的;非法的;假造的。

15. The new garment fits herperfectly.

A. clothes 

B. haircut

C.purse 

D. necklace

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:新衣服很合适她。garment衣服,服装。clothes衣服,衣物。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。haircut理发;发型;发式。purse钱包。necklace项链。

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题l分,共7分)

下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

IncomeTax

For many young Americans, graduating fromcollege means finding a job, moving out of the dorm room and beginning toregister one’s annual earnings with the US government.

That last item is the law, though sometimesit’s a hassle (难事)to obey.

Independent tax advisor Bob Gilbert callsthe US income tax system “amazingly complicated”. But he adds that “very littleof the complicated tax law applies to young people who are just beginning theircareers”. According to Gilbert, 80 to 90 percent of Americans are not reallyburdened by the system’s complications.

Still, all the numbers and forms can be alittle confusing to those who are just starting their careers. Some pull outtheir calculators and try to do the math alone. Some use income tax software.Others just hand the whole responsibility over to tax firms like Gilbert’s.According to income tax law expert Linda Beale, young people will often followtheir parents’ lead when filling their income forms.

“Young people who grow up in wealthyhouseholds typically use professional tax services because their parents havealways done so,” said Beale, a professor at Wayne State University in Michigan State.

“On the other hand, most poorer youngpeople probably try to do their own taxes, unless they want a quick ‘refund’with the help of a tax advisor”.

In fact, obeying the law has its benefits.For one, many young people can expect a tax refund. This means that, over thecourse of the year, they have paid too much in monthly federal or state taxesand are entitled to the difference.

Bob Thalman, a 20-year-old universitystudent, expects he will get a refund of about 100, which will probably go inthe bank, or perhaps be used to pay for car insurance or credit card bills.

Thalman called the whole process a “hassle”,but added that he didn’t want to test the law by not filling his income taxpapers.

“I’m worried about what would happen if Ifailed to file,” he said. “I know one individual who did not report his incometax for many years, and he’s now in federal prison. I certainly don’t wantthat.”

16. A college student with a part-time jobis not required to file an income tax form.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

17. The US income tax system does not whollyapply to a college graduate who is just beginning his or her career.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

18. It’s pretty easy for a beginner toreport his or her income tax.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

19. When young people file their income taxform, they will often follow in their parents’ footsteps.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

20. Young people from poorer families needn’tfile their income tax forms.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

21. If one has failed to report his or herincome tax for quite a few years, he or she may be put in prison.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

22. The US income tax system will besimplified in the next few years.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

【答案与解析】

16.C  点睛:全文提到了刚刚毕业开始工作的大学生的情况,但是并没有提及做兼职的大学生是否应该报税,因此本题选C项。

17.A  定位:根据关键词apply to和just beginning his or her career定位到第三段第二句。

点睛:根据第三段第二句可知,能运用到刚开始事业的年轻人身上的复杂税法非常少,因此本题选A项。

18.B  点睛:文章一直在强调美国所得税法的复杂性,并且根据第四段第一句可知,对于刚开始工作的年轻人,报税仍然令人困惑,由此可知本题题干表述错误,因此选B项。

19.A  定位:根据关键词follow in their parents’ footsteps定位第四段最后一句和第五段。

点睛:根据第四段最后一句“young peoplewill often follow their parents’ lead when filling their income forms”可知,年轻人在填税务表时往往会追随他们的父母,因此本题选A项。

20.B  定位:根据young people from poorerfamilies定位到第六段。

点睛:第六段明确说道“大多数贫困的年轻人可能会尝试自己完成税收”,由此可知题干表述错误,因此本题选B项。

21.A  定位:根据failed to report his or her income tax及put in prison定位到最后一段。

点睛:最后一段最后一句提到,有一个人由于多年没有报所得税,现在已经在联邦监狱里,由此可知,题干表述正确,因此选A项。

22.C  点睛:全文只提到了美国税法系统的复杂性,并没有提到将来会怎么发展,因此本题选C项。

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题l分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

TunguskaEvent

1. A hundred years ago this week, agigantic explosion ripped (撕裂) open the day above a forest in western Siberia, leaving ascientific riddle that endures to this day.

2. A dazzling light pierced the heavens,followed by a shock wave as strong as 1,000 atomic bombs. The explosionflattened 80 million trees across an area of 2,000 square kilometers. Thefireball was so great that, a day later, Londoners could read their newspapersunder the night sky. What caused the so-called Tunguska Event, named after thenearby Podkamennaya Tunguska river, still remains a mystery.

3. Experts suspect it was a rock that,after traveling in space for millions of years, was destined to crash to Earthat exactly 7:17 a.m. on June 30, 1908. This possibility worries scientists. “Imaginean unspotted asteroid (小行星) hitting a significant chunk (块) of land... and imagine if that area, unlike Tunguska, werepopulated,” the British science journal Nature commented recently.

4. But no fragments of the “rock” have everbeen found. Finding such evidence would be important, for it would increase ourknowledge about the risk posed by dangerous Near Earth Objects (NEOs), sayItalian researchers Luca Gasperini, Enrico Bonatti and Giuseppe Longo. When thenext Tunguska NEO approaches, scientists will have to decide whether to try todeflect (使偏转) it orblow it up in space.

5. However, several rival theories for theTunguska Event exist. Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University,believes the Tunguska Event was caused by a massive escape of 10 million tonsof methane (甲烷)-richgas from deep within earth’s crust. Some people hold that the explosion wascaused by an alien spaceship crash, or a black hole in the universe.

27. The gigantic explosion that occurred ahundred years ago _____.

28. The shock wave which followed thedazzling light _____.

29. The hypothesis that the explosion wascaused by a rock colliding with the Earth _____.

30. Wolfgang Kundt, who has developed analternative theory _____.

【答案与解析】

23.C  第二段主要描述了这次爆炸的威力和剧烈程度,并且在最后指出爆炸目前仍然是一个谜团。C项“神秘的爆炸”符合本段主要内容,因此选C项。

24.F  第三段首先提到科学家推测的碰撞理论,接着提到“This possibility worries scientists”,并具体介绍了科学家所担忧的事情,由此可知,F项“使科学家担忧的解释”符合本段大意,因此选F项。

25.E  第四段第二句就提到了“Finding such evidence would be important”,并给出了具体的理由,由此可知,E项“找到证据的重要性”符合本段主要内容,因此本题选E项。

26.A  第五段第一句为主题句,其中提到“关于通古斯大爆炸,还存在着其他竞争的理论。”由此可知,A项“其他竞争的解释”符合本段内容,因此选A项。

27.A  点睛:根据第一段“A hundred years ago this week, a gigantic explosion…leaving a scientificriddle that endures to this day” 可知,爆炸至今仍然是一个谜团,因此本题选A项。

28.D  定位:根据关键词shock wave和dazzling light定位到第二段。

点睛:第二段是对第一段提到的巨大爆炸的描述,由此可知,耀眼的光和冲击波是由于爆炸产生的。本题选D项。

29.B  定位:根据关键词hypothesis和caused by a rock定位到第三段和第四段。

点睛:根据第四段第一句可知,关于太空岩石碰撞地球的理论,目前还没有找到证据,因此本题选B项。

30.C  定位:根据关键词Wolfgang Kundt定位到第五段第二句。

点睛:根据第五段第二句“Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University”可知,本题选C项。

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇 Sports Star Yao Ming

If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports starin the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26 m, he is the tallestplayer in the National Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most toweringOlympian ever to compete in the Games.

But what really stands out about the giantcenter is his celebrity (名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for hisbasketball prowess (杰出的才能) but also for being a symbol of international commerce.

When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as theNo. 1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft (选拔), he was the first international player ever to be selected first.His assets on the court are clear enough —no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he isa handful (难对付的人)for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to theRockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge tomillions of potential basketball fans in China.

When it was announced in February that Yaowould miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stressfracture (骨折) inhis left foot, a collective shudder (震动) spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tinyscrews across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. Thesurgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period willleave him little time to prepare with Team China, Yao has vowed to be ready forthe Beijing Olympics.

Yao wrapped up a10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinesemedicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process. Westernexperts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits, although new research fromthe university of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived fromshellfish may speed stimulate bone repair.

“There is no reason to dismiss TCM,” Yao told a press conference in Beijing. “It’s been used in our country for thousands ofyears. I don’t think that it’s short on science.”

31. The word “towering” in Paragraph 1means____.

  A. large

  B. fat

  C. tall

  D. great

32. Opponents find it very difficult tocontrol Yao Ming because of his____.

  A. mobility

  B. assault

  C. defense

  D. celebrity

33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCMtreatments because____.

  A. his right foot had beenhurting

  B. he wanted to make a morerapid recovery

  C. the surgical operation hadbeen a failure

  D. he couldn"t afford all themedical expenses

34. Which statement about Yao Ming is NOTtrue?

  A. He missed the AthensOlympics.

  B. He is an NBA player.

  C. He fractured his left foot.

  D. He is an internationalfigure.

35. In general, the Western experts’attitude towards TCM is____.

  A. indifferent

  B. positive

  C. negative

  D. doubtful

【答案与解析】

31.C  点睛:文章第一段第一句提到了姚明是最高的。因此第二句中“towering”应该继续指姚明在身高方面的记录,因此本题选C项。towering耸立的;高大的。

32.A  定位:根据关键词opponents和difficult to control定位到第三段第二句。

点睛:根据第三段第二句中的“no NBA playerof his size has ever possessed his mobility”,可知,由于姚明身材高大且移动迅速,他很难对付。因此本题选A项。

避错:文章第二段提到了姚明的名气,但是这并不是他很难对付的原因,因此D项不符合题意。B项和C项文中没有提及,因此排除。

33.B  定位:根据关键词a series of TCM treatment定位到最后两段。

点睛:根据倒数第二段第一句中的“hoping toaccelerate his recovery process”可知,姚明之所以接受中医药治疗是为了快速恢复,因此本题选B项。

避错:文章第四段只提到了他的左脚受伤,并且提到了手术成功了,因此A项和C项明显错误。D项文中没有提及,因此排除。

34.A  点睛:文章第一段第二句就介绍了姚明是NBA中最高的一名球员,因此B项表述正确。根据文章第二段可知,姚明名气大,是国际商务的一个象征,因此D项与原文表述相符。文章第四段第一句提到了姚明左脚骨折,因此C项表述正确。第四段只提到姚明有可能错过奥运会,并且根据第四段最后一句可知,这里指的是北京奥运会,因此A项表述明显错误。因此本题选A项。

35.D  定位:根据关键词western experts’ attitude和TCM定位到最后两段。

点睛:根据倒数第二段最后一句可知,“Western expertsare generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits”,skeptical意思为“怀疑的”,因此本题选D项。

第二篇 Black Holes Trigger Stars to Self-Destruct

Scientists have long understood that supermassive black holes weighing millions or billions of suns can tear apart starsthat come too close. The black hole"s gravity pulls harder on the nearest partof the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes orhours, once it gets close enough.

Scientists say this uneven pulling is not theonly hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can alsotrigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within.Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such anunfortunate star"s life, as it veered towards a super massive black hole.

When the star gets close enough, the unevenforces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggestedthis flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the starenough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But otherstudies had suggested that the picture would be complicated by shock wavesgenerated during the flattening process and that no nuclear explosion shouldoccur.

The new simulations investigated theeffects of shock waves in detail, and found that even when their effects areincluded, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosionof the star—it willbe completely destroyed,” Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates thestar, it saves some of the star"s matter from being devoured by the black hole.The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star"s matter out of theblack hole"s reach, he says.

The devouring of stars by black holes mayalready have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought thatseveral months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter startsswirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultravioletlight and X-rays.

If stars disrupted near black holes reallydo explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at amuch earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible to see the disruption of that starimmediately if it gets hot enough,” he says.

Brassart agrees. “Perhaps it can beobserved in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it’s something that needs to be morestudied,” he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos NationalLaboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars aredifficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proventheir Case that they explode in the process.

36. Something destructive could happen to astar that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following destructivestatements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A. The black hole could tear apart thestar.

B. The black hole could trigger a nuclearexplosion in the star.

C. The black hole could dwindle its sizeconsiderably.

D. The black hole could devour the star.

37. According to the third paragraph,researchers differed from each other in the problem of____.

A. whether nuclear reaction would occur

B. whether the stars would increase itsdensity and temperature

C. whether shock waves would occur

D. whether the uneven forces would flattenthe stars

38. According to the fourth paragraph,which of the following is NOT true?

A. No nuclear explosion would be triggeredinside the star.

B. The star would be destroyed completely.

C. Much of the star’s matter thrown by theexplosion would be beyond the black hole’s reach.

D. The black hole would completely devourthe star.

39. What will happen several months afterthe explosion of the star?

A. The star’s matter will move further awayfrom by the black hole.

B. The black hole’s matter will heat up.

C. The torn star’s matter will swirl intothe black hole.

D. The black hole’s matter will releaseultraviolet light and X-rays.

40.According to the context, the word “disruption”in Paragraph 6 means____.

A. “Confusion”

B. “Tearing apart”

C. “Interruption”

D. “Flattening”

【答案与解析】

36.C  点睛:根据第一段第一句“black holes…can tear apart stars that come too close”可知,A项文章中有提及,因此排除A项。同时,根据第二段第二句可知,有可能诱发恒星内部的核爆炸,因此B项也应该排除。另外,文章第五段第一句介绍了黑洞吞噬恒星的情况,因此D项排除。只有C项文中没有提及,因此选C项。

37.A  点睛:根据第三段最后一句可知,有研究表明由于冲击波的影响,“no nuclear explosion should occur”,由此可知,关于是否引发核爆炸,科学家之间存在分歧,因此选A项。

避错:文章第三段第一、二句提到了恒星会被压扁,并且密度和质量增加,对此文章并没有提到其他相反的意见,因此排除B项和D项。第三段最后一句提到了冲击波,但是并没有怀疑冲击波是否存在,因此排除C项。

38.D  点睛:根据第四段倒数第二句可知,“尽管爆炸会毁灭恒星,但它保存了恒星的部分物质不被黑洞吞噬”,由此可知D项与原文不符合。

避错:根据第四段第二句和最后一句可知,B项和C项符合原文表达。第四段第一句话通过电脑模拟认为会发生核爆炸,但是这只是模拟的结果推测,根据这一段并不能证明一定会发生核爆炸,因此A项不符合题意,排除。

39.C  定位:根据关键词several months可定位到第五段。

点睛:根据第五段第二句可知,恒星撕裂后的几个月里,恒星物质开始自己进入黑洞的漩涡,因此本题选C项。

避错:A项明显与正确答案不一致,为错误选项。根据第五段最后一句可知,是恒星的物质升温,并且释放紫外光和X射线,B项和D项与原文表述不符,因此排除。

40.B  点睛:根据语境,第五段讲到科学家可能已经观察到比较晚的阶段,即在撕裂后恒星被吞噬的情况,第六段接着讲科学家认为可以观测到更早期的阶段,即恒星被撕裂的过程,因此第六段中的disruption的意思应该为“撕裂”,因此本题选B项。

第三篇 Don’t Count on Dung

Conservationists(自然保护主义者) may be miscalculatingthe numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants, say African andAmerican researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way theyestimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪) the creatures leave behind.

The mistake could lead researchers to thinkthat there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions,according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in New York.

Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, agrees. “We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that wehave is quite indirect,” says Payne, who electronically tracks elephants.

Counting elephants from planes isimpossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers oftenestimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They alsoneed to know the rate at which dung decays: Because it’s extremely difficult todetermine these rates, however, researchers counting elephants in one regiontend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.

But researchers at the WCS have found thatthis decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate andenvironment. Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道), says Plumptre.

He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanjistudied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon. They found that thedung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in therainforests of neighbouring Gabon. If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon, they would probably find more elephants than are actuallyaround. This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high asthose derived from decay rates calculated locally, says Plumptre. “Howeveraccurate your dung density estimate might be, the decay rate can severelyaffect the result.”

Plumptre also says that the dung-pilecensus should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant’snatural range. The usual technique of monitoring only small, protected areasdistorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions, he says. “If the elephant populationincreases within the protected area, you cannot determine whether it is a realincrease or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are beingpoached(入侵偷猎)outside.”

  Plumptre says thatsimilar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely onindirect evidence such as nests, tracks or burrows(地洞).

41. The word “threatened” in the firstsentence of the first paragraph could be best replaced by____.

A. “endangered”

B. “frightened”

C. “killed”

D. “angered”

42. Piles of dung can’t be relied upon whenit comes to estimating elephant numbers because____.

A. they are different in size

B. they scatter all over the region

C. they are different in decay rate

D. they are different in quality

43. Why do researchers estimate elephantnumbers in an area by counting dung piles?

A. Because elephants are difficult tocatch.

B. Because it is not possible to countelephants from a plane.

C. Because it is not possible to keep trackof elephants.

D. Because elephants are shy animals.

44. According to Plumptre, the region overwhich a dung-pile census is carried out should be____.

A. small enough

B. well protected

C. carefully monitored

D. large enough

45. The first word "He" inparagraph 6 refers to____.

A. Andrew Plumptre

B. Katy Payne

C. Anthony Chifu Nchanji

D. the writer of the article

【答案与解析】

41.A  点睛:根据原文第一段的第一句话可知,自然保护主义者可能算错了如大象之类的濒危动物的数量。threatened意为“受到威胁的”,指的是濒危动物,与endangered“有灭绝危险的,有生命危险的”可互换。因此,本题的正确答案为A。

42.C  点睛:原文第四段说到,通过数粪堆来估计大象的数量还要考虑到粪堆的衰变速率。并且,原文第五段的第一句话又明确说到,“...this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climateand environment…”由此可知,本题的正确答案为C项。

避错:其他选项文中均未提及,因此排除。

43.B  点睛:原文第四段的前两句话明确说到,“Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforestsof Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by countingdung piles in a given area”,也就是说,研究人员不得不通过大象粪便估计大象数量的原因是由于从飞机上数大象不可能的。由此可知,本题的正确答案为B。

避错:其他选项文中均未提及,因此排除。

44.D  定位:根据关键词Plumptre、the region和a dung-pile census定位到原文倒数第二段。

点睛:原文倒数第二段的第一句话就明确说到,“Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried outover a region similar in size to an elephant’s natural range.”他认为普查的地区的大小应该与大象的自然范围类似。并且根据后文分析的监测区域过小的弊端可知,Plumptre认为统计区域应该要足够大。因此,本题的正确答案为D。

避错:A项明显与正确答案不符,为错误选项。倒数第二段举了保护区监测的例子,B项与C项属于断章取义,与原文内容不符,因此排除。

45.A  点睛:代词通常指代的是前面提到且离得很近的词。上一段的末尾提到了Plumptre,由此可推知,此处的He指代的即为Plumptre。因此,本题的正确答案为A。

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

Sauna

Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing has existed for thousands of yearsand has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steambath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouringwater over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath.  46   Dryheat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americansused sweat lodges.

The earliest saunas were probablyunderground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimneymaking was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rockwalls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the caveand the stones would retain heat for several hours.  47   Todaymost saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves areavailable.

Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving.Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain andinflammation(炎症).Asthma(气喘)patientsfind that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitatesbreathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviatecongestion(阻塞) andspeed recovery time.  48   The sauna could beconsidered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever".The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in thefirst place.

Sauna is good for your skin as the bloodflow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs ofwater per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime frompores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporaryas the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes.  49  Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to100-150 beats per minute.

A normal heart can handle these stressesbut those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek adoctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with theirdoctor prior to beginning to take saunas.  50   Indeed,everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to becomeaccustomed to this type of bath.

A.an extra large sauna and steam room canbe used for players to relax in.

B. The cardiovascular system gets a workout as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface forheat exchange.

C. The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russiansas well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathingrituals.<