1. Only people over 18 are eligible
2. The latest car model embodies the
new research development.
3. The coastal area has very mild
winter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.
4. She is an artist whose work will undoubtedly withstand the
test of time.
5. He wore a shabby thin overcoat in the cold winter so that
he fell ill.
6.The weather was so gorgeous that many people went outing.
7.Competitors must abide by the judge’s decision.
8. The umbrella was ingeniously devised to fold up into the
9.Some newspapers in the west are notably biased.
10.His answers were obscure and confusing.
11. The way she looked after her young
sister was really touching
12. We are worried about this fluid
situation filled with uncertainty.
13. They have built canals to irrigate
14. The details of the costume were totally
15. The new garment fits her
For many young Americans, graduating from
college means finding a job, moving out of the dorm room and beginning to
register one’s annual earnings with the US government.
That last item is the law, though sometimes
it’s a hassle (难事)
Independent tax advisor Bob Gilbert calls
the US income tax system “amazingly complicated”. But he adds that “very little
of the complicated tax law applies to young people who are just beginning their
careers”. According to Gilbert, 80 to 90 percent of Americans are not really
burdened by the system’s complications.
Still, all the numbers and forms can be a
little confusing to those who are just starting their careers. Some pull out
their calculators and try to do the math alone. Some use income tax software.
Others just hand the whole responsibility over to tax firms like Gilbert’s.
According to income tax law expert Linda Beale, young people will often follow
their parents’ lead when filling their income forms.
“Young people who grow up in wealthy
households typically use professional tax services because their parents have
always done so,” said Beale, a professor at Wayne State University in Michigan State.
“On the other hand, most poorer young
people probably try to do their own taxes, unless they want a quick ‘refund’
with the help of a tax advisor”.
In fact, obeying the law has its benefits.
For one, many young people can expect a tax refund. This means that, over the
course of the year, they have paid too much in monthly federal or state taxes
and are entitled to the difference.
Bob Thalman, a 20-year-old university
student, expects he will get a refund of about 100, which will probably go in
the bank, or perhaps be used to pay for car insurance or credit card bills.
Thalman called the whole process a “hassle”,
but added that he didn’t want to test the law by not filling his income tax
“I’m worried about what would happen if I
failed to file,” he said. “I know one individual who did not report his income
tax for many years, and he’s now in federal prison. I certainly don’t want
16. A college student with a part-time job
is not required to file an income tax form.
C. Not mentioned
17. The US income tax system does not wholly
apply to a college graduate who is just beginning his or her career.
C. Not mentioned
18. It’s pretty easy for a beginner to
report his or her income tax.
C. Not mentioned
19. When young people file their income tax
form, they will often follow in their parents’ footsteps.
C. Not mentioned
20. Young people from poorer families needn’t
file their income tax forms.
C. Not mentioned
21. If one has failed to report his or her
income tax for quite a few years, he or she may be put in prison.
C. Not mentioned
22. The US income tax system will be
simplified in the next few years.
C. Not mentioned
17.A 定位：根据关键词apply to和just beginning his or her career定位到第三段第二句。
19.A 定位：根据关键词follow in their parents’ footsteps定位第四段最后一句和第五段。
will often follow their parents’ lead when filling their income forms”可知，年轻人在填税务表时往往会追随他们的父母，因此本题选A项。
20.B 定位：根据young people from poorer
21.A 定位：根据failed to report his or her income tax及put in prison定位到最后一段。
1. A hundred years ago this week, a
gigantic explosion ripped (撕裂) open the day above a forest in western Siberia, leaving a
scientific riddle that endures to this day.
2. A dazzling light pierced the heavens,
followed by a shock wave as strong as 1,000 atomic bombs. The explosion
flattened 80 million trees across an area of 2,000 square kilometers. The
fireball was so great that, a day later, Londoners could read their newspapers
under the night sky. What caused the so-called Tunguska Event, named after the
nearby Podkamennaya Tunguska river, still remains a mystery.
3. Experts suspect it was a rock that,
after traveling in space for millions of years, was destined to crash to Earth
at exactly 7:17 a.m. on June 30, 1908. This possibility worries scientists. “Imagine
an unspotted asteroid (小行星) hitting a significant chunk (块) of land... and imagine if that area, unlike Tunguska, were
populated,” the British science journal Nature commented recently.
4. But no fragments of the “rock” have ever
been found. Finding such evidence would be important, for it would increase our
knowledge about the risk posed by dangerous Near Earth Objects (NEOs), say
Italian researchers Luca Gasperini, Enrico Bonatti and Giuseppe Longo. When the
next Tunguska NEO approaches, scientists will have to decide whether to try to
deflect (使偏转) it or
blow it up in space.
5. However, several rival theories for the
Tunguska Event exist. Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University,
believes the Tunguska Event was caused by a massive escape of 10 million tons
of methane (甲烷)-rich
gas from deep within earth’s crust. Some people hold that the explosion was
caused by an alien spaceship crash, or a black hole in the universe.
27. The gigantic explosion that occurred a
hundred years ago _____.
28. The shock wave which followed the
dazzling light _____.
29. The hypothesis that the explosion was
caused by a rock colliding with the Earth _____.
30. Wolfgang Kundt, who has developed an
alternative theory _____.
24.F 第三段首先提到科学家推测的碰撞理论，接着提到“This possibility worries scientists”，并具体介绍了科学家所担忧的事情，由此可知，F项“使科学家担忧的解释”符合本段大意，因此选F项。
25.E 第四段第二句就提到了“Finding such evidence would be important”，并给出了具体的理由，由此可知，E项“找到证据的重要性”符合本段主要内容，因此本题选E项。
27.A 点睛：根据第一段“A hundred years ago this week, a gigantic explosion…leaving a scientific
riddle that endures to this day” 可知，爆炸至今仍然是一个谜团，因此本题选A项。
28.D 定位：根据关键词shock wave和dazzling light定位到第二段。
29.B 定位：根据关键词hypothesis和caused by a rock定位到第三段和第四段。
30.C 定位：根据关键词Wolfgang Kundt定位到第五段第二句。
点睛：根据第五段第二句“Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University”可知，本题选C项。
Sports Star Yao Ming
If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports star
in the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26 m, he is the tallest
player in the National Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most towering
Olympian ever to compete in the Games.
But what really stands out about the giant
center is his celebrity (名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for his
basketball prowess (杰出的才能) but also for being a symbol of international commerce.
When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as the
No. 1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft (选拔), he was the first international player ever to be selected first.
His assets on the court are clear enough —no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he is
a handful (难对付的人)
for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to the
Rockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge to
millions of potential basketball fans in China.
When it was announced in February that Yao
would miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stress
fracture (骨折) in
his left foot, a collective shudder (震动) spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tiny
screws across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. The
surgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period will
leave him little time to prepare with Team China, Yao has vowed to be ready for
the Beijing Olympics.
Yao wrapped up a
10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process. Western
experts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits, although new research from
the university of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived from
shellfish may speed stimulate bone repair.
“There is no reason to dismiss TCM,” Yao told a press conference in Beijing. “It’s been used in our country for thousands of
years. I don’t think that it’s short on science.”
31. The word “towering” in Paragraph 1
32. Opponents find it very difficult to
control Yao Ming because of his____.
33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCM
A. his right foot had been
B. he wanted to make a more
C. the surgical operation had
been a failure
D. he couldn't afford all the
34. Which statement about Yao Ming is NOT
A. He missed the Athens
B. He is an NBA player.
C. He fractured his left foot.
D. He is an international
35. In general, the Western experts’
attitude towards TCM is____.
32.A 定位：根据关键词opponents和difficult to control定位到第三段第二句。
点睛：根据第三段第二句中的“no NBA player
of his size has ever possessed his mobility”，可知，由于姚明身材高大且移动迅速，他很难对付。因此本题选A项。
33.B 定位：根据关键词a series of TCM treatment定位到最后两段。
accelerate his recovery process”可知，姚明之所以接受中医药治疗是为了快速恢复，因此本题选B项。
35.D 定位：根据关键词western experts’ attitude和TCM定位到最后两段。
are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits”，skeptical意思为“怀疑的”，因此本题选D项。
Black Holes Trigger Stars to Self-Destruct
Scientists have long understood that super
massive black holes weighing millions or billions of suns can tear apart stars
that come too close. The black hole's gravity pulls harder on the nearest part
of the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes or
hours, once it gets close enough.
Scientists say this uneven pulling is not the
only hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can also
trigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within.
Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such an
unfortunate star's life, as it veered towards a super massive black hole.
When the star gets close enough, the uneven
forces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggested
this flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the star
enough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But other
studies had suggested that the picture would be complicated by shock waves
generated during the flattening process and that no nuclear explosion should
The new simulations investigated the
effects of shock waves in detail, and found that even when their effects are
included, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosion
of the star—it will
be completely destroyed,” Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates the
star, it saves some of the star's matter from being devoured by the black hole.
The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star's matter out of the
black hole's reach, he says.
The devouring of stars by black holes may
already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought that
several months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter starts
swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet
light and X-rays.
If stars disrupted near black holes really
do explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at a
much earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible to see the disruption of that star
immediately if it gets hot enough,” he says.
Brassart agrees. “Perhaps it can be
observed in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it’s something that needs to be more
studied,” he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos National
Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars are
difficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proven
their Case that they explode in the process.
36. Something destructive could happen to a
star that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following destructive
statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. The black hole could tear apart the
B. The black hole could trigger a nuclear
explosion in the star.
C. The black hole could dwindle its size
D. The black hole could devour the star.
37. According to the third paragraph,
researchers differed from each other in the problem of____.
A. whether nuclear reaction would occur
B. whether the stars would increase its
density and temperature
C. whether shock waves would occur
D. whether the uneven forces would flatten
38. According to the fourth paragraph,
which of the following is NOT true?
A. No nuclear explosion would be triggered
inside the star.
B. The star would be destroyed completely.
C. Much of the star’s matter thrown by the
explosion would be beyond the black hole’s reach.
D. The black hole would completely devour
39. What will happen several months after
the explosion of the star?
A. The star’s matter will move further away
from by the black hole.
B. The black hole’s matter will heat up.
C. The torn star’s matter will swirl into
the black hole.
D. The black hole’s matter will release
ultraviolet light and X-rays.
40.According to the context, the word “disruption”in Paragraph 6 means____.
B. “Tearing apart”
36.C 点睛：根据第一段第一句“black holes…can tear apart stars that come too close”可知，A项文章中有提及，因此排除A项。同时，根据第二段第二句可知，有可能诱发恒星内部的核爆炸，因此B项也应该排除。另外，文章第五段第一句介绍了黑洞吞噬恒星的情况，因此D项排除。只有C项文中没有提及，因此选C项。
37.A 点睛：根据第三段最后一句可知，有研究表明由于冲击波的影响，“no nuclear explosion should occur”，由此可知，关于是否引发核爆炸，科学家之间存在分歧，因此选A项。
39.C 定位：根据关键词several months可定位到第五段。
Don’t Count on Dung
Conservationists(自然保护主义者) may be miscalculating
the numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants, say African and
American researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way they
estimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪) the creatures leave behind.
The mistake could lead researchers to think
that there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions,
according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in New York.
Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, agrees. “We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that we
have is quite indirect,” says Payne, who electronically tracks elephants.
Counting elephants from planes is
impossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers often
estimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They also
need to know the rate at which dung decays: Because it’s extremely difficult to
determine these rates, however, researchers counting elephants in one region
tend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.
But researchers at the WCS have found that
this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate and
environment. Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道), says Plumptre.
He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanji
studied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon. They found that the
dung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in the
rainforests of neighbouring Gabon. If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon, they would probably find more elephants than are actually
around. This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high as
those derived from decay rates calculated locally, says Plumptre. “However
accurate your dung density estimate might be, the decay rate can severely
affect the result.”
Plumptre also says that the dung-pile
census should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant’s
natural range. The usual technique of monitoring only small, protected areas
distorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions, he says. “If the elephant population
increases within the protected area, you cannot determine whether it is a real
increase or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are being
Plumptre says that
similar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely on
indirect evidence such as nests, tracks or burrows(地洞).
41. The word “threatened” in the first
sentence of the first paragraph could be best replaced by____.
42. Piles of dung can’t be relied upon when
it comes to estimating elephant numbers because____.
A. they are different in size
B. they scatter all over the region
C. they are different in decay rate
D. they are different in quality
43. Why do researchers estimate elephant
numbers in an area by counting dung piles?
A. Because elephants are difficult to
B. Because it is not possible to count
elephants from a plane.
C. Because it is not possible to keep track
D. Because elephants are shy animals.
44. According to Plumptre, the region over
which a dung-pile census is carried out should be____.
A. small enough
B. well protected
C. carefully monitored
D. large enough
45. The first word "He" in
paragraph 6 refers to____.
A. Andrew Plumptre
B. Katy Payne
C. Anthony Chifu Nchanji
D. the writer of the article
42.C 点睛：原文第四段说到，通过数粪堆来估计大象的数量还要考虑到粪堆的衰变速率。并且，原文第五段的第一句话又明确说到，“...this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate
43.B 点睛：原文第四段的前两句话明确说到，“Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforests
of Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by counting
dung piles in a given area”，也就是说，研究人员不得不通过大象粪便估计大象数量的原因是由于从飞机上数大象不可能的。由此可知，本题的正确答案为B。
44.D 定位：根据关键词Plumptre、the region和a dung-pile census定位到原文倒数第二段。
点睛：原文倒数第二段的第一句话就明确说到，“Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried out
over a region similar in size to an elephant’s natural range.”他认为普查的地区的大小应该与大象的自然范围类似。并且根据后文分析的监测区域过小的弊端可知，Plumptre认为统计区域应该要足够大。因此，本题的正确答案为D。
Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing has existed for thousands of years
and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam
bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouring
water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath. 46 Dry
heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans
used sweat lodges.
The earliest saunas were probably
underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney
making was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock
walls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the cave
and the stones would retain heat for several hours. 47 Today
most saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are
Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving.
Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and
find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates
breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate
speed recovery time. 48 The sauna could be
considered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever".
The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the
Sauna is good for your skin as the blood
flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs of
water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime from
pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary
as the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes. 49
Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to
100-150 beats per minute.
A normal heart can handle these stresses
but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a
doctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with their
doctor prior to beginning to take saunas. 50 Indeed,
everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to become
accustomed to this type of bath.
A.an extra large sauna and steam room can
be used for players to relax in.
B. The cardiovascular system gets a work
out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for
C. The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians
as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing
D. The body’s core temperature usually
rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.
E. Pregnant women should not take saunas,
particularly in the first three months.
F. A few people today say that the smoke
sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all
saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.
48.D 空格前后都在讲桑拿浴对于治疗或者防止感冒的积极作用。D项“在蒸桑拿浴时，人体温度通常会上升l—2摄氏度，就像发低烧一样的感觉。”具体说明了桑拿浴对人体产生的影响，其中的“a slight fever”与下文中的“feed a cold, starve a fever”相呼应，符合上下文语境，因此选D项。
Early Form of Jazz Music
Music comes in many forms; most countries
have a style of their own. At the turn of the last century, 51
jazz was born, America had no prominent 52 of
its own. No one knows exactly when jazz was invented or by whom. But it began
to be 53 in the early 1890s. Jazz is America’s contribution to 54 music. In contrast to classical
music, which 55 formal European traditions, jazz
is spontaneous and free in form. It bubbles with energy, 56
the moods, interests, and emotions of the people. In the 1920s jazz 57
like America. And so it does today. The 58 of
the music are as interesting as the music itself. American Negroes, or blacks,
as they are called today, were the jazz pioneers. They were brought to the
Southern states 59 slaves. They were sold to
plantation owners and forced to work long hours. When a Negro died, his friends
and relatives 60 a procession to carry the body
to the cemetery. In New Orleans, a band often accompanied the 61
. On the way to the cemetery the band played slow, solemn music, suited to
the occasion. 62 on the way home the mood
changed. Spirits lifted. Death had removed one of their number, but the living
were glad to be 63 . The band played 64
music, improvising on both the harmony and the melody of the tunes 65
at the funeral. This music made everyone want to dance. It was an
early form of jazz.
51. A. while B.
52. A. music B.
melodies D. tunes
53. A. listened B.
54. A. classical B.
55. A. introduces B.
56. A. disclosing B.
explaining C. expressing D.
57. A. sounded B.
58. A. discoveries B.
59. A. like B.
60. A. composed B.
61. A. body B.
demonstration C. procession D.
62. A. Furthermore B.
Similarly C. But D.
63. A. live B.
64. A. sad B.
65. A. sung B.
51.B 语法结构题。空格所在的句子成分为定语从句修饰前面的时间the turn of the last century，其中空格处在从句中作状语,因此这里需要填入一个引导定语从句的关系副词when，因此本题选B项。
53.C 词义辨析题。爵士乐是音乐，所以noticed 和 found 都不合适。listen是不及物动词，在这里使用时需要加上to。C项heard在这里表示“听到”，符合题意，因此选C项。
58.D 语意理解题。下文主要讲了爵士乐的起源， origin“起源”，因此本题选D项，discovery发现。resource资源。original原型；原作。
63.B 词义辨析题。句意：但是活着的人应该快乐地生活。be alive表示 “活着”，与前面的“死”相对，符合语境，因此选B项。