[电子书]2020年全国职称英语等级考试(综合类A级)题库【历年真题+章节题库+模拟试题】

[电子书] 2020年全国职称英语等级考试(综合类A级)题库【历年真题+章节题库+模拟试题】

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作者:冲刺线教育
版次:2
更新时间:2019-12-18
文件大小:39.32 M
页数:267
下载版适用系统:Win10/Win8/Win7
目录

内容简介

第一部分 历年真题

2016年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

2015年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

2014年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

2013年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

2012年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

2011年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

第二部分 章节题库

第1章 词汇选项

◆动 词

◆名 词

◆形容词

◆副 词

◆固定词组

第2章 阅读判断

◆社会生活类

◆科普科研类

◆经济商业类

◆历史地理类

◆风土人情类

◆教育文化类

◆人物记述类

◆医疗健康类

第3章 概括大意和完成句子

◆社会生活类

◆科普科研类

◆经济商业类

◆历史地理类

◆风土人情类

◆人物记述类

◆资源环境类

◆医疗健康类

第4章 阅读理解

◆社会生活类

◆科普科研类

◆经济商业类

◆风土人情类

◆艺术文学类

◆教育文化类

◆资源环境类

◆医疗健康类

◆政治法律类

第5章 补全短文

◆科普科研类

◆经济商业类

◆教育文化类

◆人物记述类

◆资源环境类

第6章 完形填空

◆社会生活类

◆科普科研类

◆经济商业类

◆历史地理类

◆人物记述类

◆资源环境类

◆医疗健康类

第三部分 模拟试题

全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级模拟试题及详解(一)

全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级模拟试题及详解(二)

内容简介

本书特别适用于参加全国职称外语考试[英语]的考生。

《全国职称英语等级考试(综合类A级)题库》包括历年真题、章节练习和模拟试题三部分。

具体如下:

第一部分为历年真题。精选6年(2011~2016年)考试真题,考生既可以体验真实考试,也可以测试自己的水平。每道真题均提供名师详细解析。

第二部分为章节练习。遵循《全国专业技术人员职称英语等级考试大纲》和全国职称英语等级考试样题,按照最新的考试题型的章目编排,共分为词汇选项、阅读判断、概括大意和完成句子等6章。

第三部分为模拟试题。由职称英语(综合类)辅导名师根据历年命题规律及热门考点进行考前预测,其试题数量、试题难度完全仿真。

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2.购买后可在手机、电脑、平板等多种平台同步使用。


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试读(部分内容)

第一部分 历年真题

2016年全国职称英语等级考试综合类A级真题及详解

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题l分,共15分)

 下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1. Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.

A. honest

B. qualified

C. enabled  

D. clever

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:只有超过18岁的人有资格投票。eligible合适的;在(法律上或道德上)合格的。qualified有资格的,胜任的,适当的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。honest诚实的。enabled激活的;可行的。clever聪明的。

2. The latest car model embodies the new research development.

A. lists 

B. includes

C. borrows 

D. broadens

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:最新的汽车模型代表了最新的研究进展。embody使具体化;包含;代表,体现。include包括;包含。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。list列出,列入。borrow借。broaden扩大,扩展。

3. The coastal area has very mild winter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.

A. severe 

B. hard

C. warm  

D. dry

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:沿海地区冬天气温温暖,但是中部平原地区却极度寒冷。mild温暖的;温柔的。warm温暖的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。severe严峻的,严厉的。hard困难的,硬的。dry干的。

4. She is an artist whose work will undoubtedly withstand the test of time.

A. grade   

B. attract

C. bear

D. suffer

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:她是一位艺术家,其作品无疑将经受住时间的考验。withstand经受,承受,禁得起。bear承担;忍受。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。grade评分;安排;依序排列。attract吸引。suffer遭受。

5. He wore a shabby thin overcoat in the cold winter so that he fell ill.

A. old 

B. big

C. new 

D. small

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:寒冷的冬天他只穿了一件薄薄的旧外套,以致于他生病了。shabby卑鄙的; 破旧的,衣衫褴褛的。old旧的;古老的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。

6.The weather was so gorgeous that many people went outing.

A. uncontrollable

B. pleasant

C. cloudy 

D. unbearable

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:天气真好,许多人都外出游玩。gorgeous华丽的;极好的,称心的;令人愉快的,令人享受的。pleasant令人愉快的;有趣的;晴朗的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。uncontrollable不可控;无法控制的。cloudy多云的;阴天的。unbearable难以忍受的;承受不住的。

7.Competitors must abide by the judge’s decision.

A. keep 

B. read

C. understand

D. obey

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:竞争者必须遵守裁判的决定。abide by遵守;信守;接受。obey遵守,遵循;服从。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选D项。

8. The umbrella was ingeniously devised to fold up into the pocket.

A. seriously 

B. cleverly

C. attentively

D. carefully

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这把伞设计精巧,可以叠起来放进口袋里。ingeniously有才能地;制作精巧地,巧妙地。cleverly巧妙地;聪明地;灵巧地。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。seriously严重地;认真地;严肃地。attentively注意地;聚精会神地;周到地。carefully小心地。

9.Some newspapers in the west are notably biased.

A. especially  

B. wholly

C. totally 

D. fairly

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:西方一些报纸特别有偏见。notably显著地;尤其。especially特别;尤其。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。wholly完全地;全部。totally完全地。fairly相当地;公平地。

10.His answers were obscure and confusing.

A. unclear  

B. obvious

C. clear 

D. direct

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他的回答模糊令人不解。obscure朦胧的;晦涩的,不清楚的。unclear不清楚的;不易了解的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。obvious明显的。clear清楚的。direct直接的。

11. The way she looked after her young sister was really touching

A. disturbing 

B. connecting

C. moving

D. waving

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:她照顾她妹妹的方式真的很感人。touching动人的,令人同情的。moving动人的;活动的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。disturbing令人不安的;烦扰的。connecting连接的。waving波浪状的。

12. We are worried about this fluid situation filled with uncertainty.

A. stable 

B. suitable

C. changeable 

D. adaptable

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:对于这个充满不确定的不稳定的情况,我们感到担忧。fluid易变的,不固定的;流动的。changeable易变的;可变的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。stable稳定的。suitable合适的,适当的。adaptable可适应的;有适应能力的。

13. They have built canals to irrigate the desert.

A. decorate 

B. change

C. visit 

D. water

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:他们必须修建沟渠灌溉沙漠。irrigate灌溉。water给……浇水。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选D项。decorate装饰。change改变。visit访问;参观。

14. The details of the costume were totally authentic.

A. outstanding 

B. real

C. creative 

D. false

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:这件古装的每个小地方都完全真实。authentic真的,真正的。real真的;真实的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。outstanding杰出的;显著的。creative创造性的,有创造力的。false虚伪的;非法的;假造的。

15. The new garment fits her perfectly.

A. clothes 

B. haircut

C. purse 

D. necklace

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:新衣服很合适她。garment衣服,服装。clothes衣服,衣物。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。haircut理发;发型;发式。purse钱包。necklace项链。

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题l分,共7分)

下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

Income Tax

For many young Americans, graduating from college means finding a job, moving out of the dorm room and beginning to register one’s annual earnings with the US government.

That last item is the law, though sometimes it’s a hassle (难事) to obey.

Independent tax advisor Bob Gilbert calls the US income tax system “amazingly complicated”. But he adds that “very little of the complicated tax law applies to young people who are just beginning their careers”. According to Gilbert, 80 to 90 percent of Americans are not really burdened by the system’s complications.

Still, all the numbers and forms can be a little confusing to those who are just starting their careers. Some pull out their calculators and try to do the math alone. Some use income tax software. Others just hand the whole responsibility over to tax firms like Gilbert’s. According to income tax law expert Linda Beale, young people will often follow their parents’ lead when filling their income forms.

“Young people who grow up in wealthy households typically use professional tax services because their parents have always done so,” said Beale, a professor at Wayne State University in Michigan State.

“On the other hand, most poorer young people probably try to do their own taxes, unless they want a quick ‘refund’ with the help of a tax advisor”.

In fact, obeying the law has its benefits. For one, many young people can expect a tax refund. This means that, over the course of the year, they have paid too much in monthly federal or state taxes and are entitled to the difference.

Bob Thalman, a 20-year-old university student, expects he will get a refund of about 100, which will probably go in the bank, or perhaps be used to pay for car insurance or credit card bills.

Thalman called the whole process a “hassle”, but added that he didn’t want to test the law by not filling his income tax papers.

“I’m worried about what would happen if I failed to file,” he said. “I know one individual who did not report his income tax for many years, and he’s now in federal prison. I certainly don’t want that.”

16. A college student with a part-time job is not required to file an income tax form.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

17. The US income tax system does not wholly apply to a college graduate who is just beginning his or her career.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

18. It’s pretty easy for a beginner to report his or her income tax.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

19. When young people file their income tax form, they will often follow in their parents’ footsteps.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

20. Young people from poorer families needn’t file their income tax forms.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

21. If one has failed to report his or her income tax for quite a few years, he or she may be put in prison.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

22. The US income tax system will be simplified in the next few years.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

【答案与解析】

16.C  点睛:全文提到了刚刚毕业开始工作的大学生的情况,但是并没有提及做兼职的大学生是否应该报税,因此本题选C项。

17.A  定位:根据关键词apply to和just beginning his or her career定位到第三段第二句。

点睛:根据第三段第二句可知,能运用到刚开始事业的年轻人身上的复杂税法非常少,因此本题选A项。

18.B  点睛:文章一直在强调美国所得税法的复杂性,并且根据第四段第一句可知,对于刚开始工作的年轻人,报税仍然令人困惑,由此可知本题题干表述错误,因此选B项。

19.A  定位:根据关键词follow in their parents’ footsteps定位第四段最后一句和第五段。

点睛:根据第四段最后一句“young people will often follow their parents’ lead when filling their income forms”可知,年轻人在填税务表时往往会追随他们的父母,因此本题选A项。

20.B  定位:根据young people from poorer families定位到第六段。

点睛:第六段明确说道“大多数贫困的年轻人可能会尝试自己完成税收”,由此可知题干表述错误,因此本题选B项。

21.A  定位:根据failed to report his or her income tax及put in prison定位到最后一段。

点睛:最后一段最后一句提到,有一个人由于多年没有报所得税,现在已经在联邦监狱里,由此可知,题干表述正确,因此选A项。

22.C  点睛:全文只提到了美国税法系统的复杂性,并没有提到将来会怎么发展,因此本题选C项。

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题l分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

Tunguska Event

1. A hundred years ago this week, a gigantic explosion ripped (撕裂) open the day above a forest in western Siberia, leaving a scientific riddle that endures to this day.

2. A dazzling light pierced the heavens, followed by a shock wave as strong as 1,000 atomic bombs. The explosion flattened 80 million trees across an area of 2,000 square kilometers. The fireball was so great that, a day later, Londoners could read their newspapers under the night sky. What caused the so-called Tunguska Event, named after the nearby Podkamennaya Tunguska river, still remains a mystery.

3. Experts suspect it was a rock that, after traveling in space for millions of years, was destined to crash to Earth at exactly 7:17 a.m. on June 30, 1908. This possibility worries scientists. “Imagine an unspotted asteroid (小行星) hitting a significant chunk (块) of land... and imagine if that area, unlike Tunguska, were populated,” the British science journal Nature commented recently.

4. But no fragments of the “rock” have ever been found. Finding such evidence would be important, for it would increase our knowledge about the risk posed by dangerous Near Earth Objects (NEOs), say Italian researchers Luca Gasperini, Enrico Bonatti and Giuseppe Longo. When the next Tunguska NEO approaches, scientists will have to decide whether to try to deflect (使偏转) it or blow it up in space.

5. However, several rival theories for the Tunguska Event exist. Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University, believes the Tunguska Event was caused by a massive escape of 10 million tons of methane (甲烷)-rich gas from deep within earth’s crust. Some people hold that the explosion was caused by an alien spaceship crash, or a black hole in the universe.

27. The gigantic explosion that occurred a hundred years ago _____.

28. The shock wave which followed the dazzling light _____.

29. The hypothesis that the explosion was caused by a rock colliding with the Earth _____.

30. Wolfgang Kundt, who has developed an alternative theory _____.

【答案与解析】

23.C  第二段主要描述了这次爆炸的威力和剧烈程度,并且在最后指出爆炸目前仍然是一个谜团。C项“神秘的爆炸”符合本段主要内容,因此选C项。

24.F  第三段首先提到科学家推测的碰撞理论,接着提到“This possibility worries scientists”,并具体介绍了科学家所担忧的事情,由此可知,F项“使科学家担忧的解释”符合本段大意,因此选F项。

25.E  第四段第二句就提到了“Finding such evidence would be important”,并给出了具体的理由,由此可知,E项“找到证据的重要性”符合本段主要内容,因此本题选E项。

26.A  第五段第一句为主题句,其中提到“关于通古斯大爆炸,还存在着其他竞争的理论。”由此可知,A项“其他竞争的解释”符合本段内容,因此选A项。

27.A  点睛:根据第一段“A hundred years ago this week, a gigantic explosion…leaving a scientific riddle that endures to this day” 可知,爆炸至今仍然是一个谜团,因此本题选A项。

28.D  定位:根据关键词shock wave和dazzling light定位到第二段。

点睛:第二段是对第一段提到的巨大爆炸的描述,由此可知,耀眼的光和冲击波是由于爆炸产生的。本题选D项。

29.B  定位:根据关键词hypothesis和caused by a rock定位到第三段和第四段。

点睛:根据第四段第一句可知,关于太空岩石碰撞地球的理论,目前还没有找到证据,因此本题选B项。

30.C  定位:根据关键词Wolfgang Kundt定位到第五段第二句。

点睛:根据第五段第二句“Wolfgang Kundt, a professor at Germany’s Bonn University”可知,本题选C项。

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇  Sports Star Yao Ming

If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports star in the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26 m, he is the tallest player in the National Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most towering Olympian ever to compete in the Games.

But what really stands out about the giant center is his celebrity (名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for his basketball prowess (杰出的才能) but also for being a symbol of international commerce.

When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as the No. 1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft (选拔), he was the first international player ever to be selected first. His assets on the court are clear enough —no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he is a handful (难对付的人) for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to the Rockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge to millions of potential basketball fans in China.

When it was announced in February that Yao would miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stress fracture (骨折) in his left foot, a collective shudder (震动) spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tiny screws across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. The surgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period will leave him little time to prepare with Team China, Yao has vowed to be ready for the Beijing Olympics.

Yao wrapped up a 10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process. Western experts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits, although new research from the university of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived from shellfish may speed stimulate bone repair.

“There is no reason to dismiss TCM,” Yao told a press conference in Beijing. “It’s been used in our country for thousands of years. I don’t think that it’s short on science.”

31. The word “towering” in Paragraph 1 means____.

  A. large

  B. fat

  C. tall

  D. great

32. Opponents find it very difficult to control Yao Ming because of his____.

  A. mobility

  B. assault

  C. defense

  D. celebrity

33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCM treatments because____.

  A. his right foot had been hurting

  B. he wanted to make a more rapid recovery

  C. the surgical operation had been a failure

  D. he couldn't afford all the medical expenses

34. Which statement about Yao Ming is NOT true?

  A. He missed the Athens Olympics.

  B. He is an NBA player.

  C. He fractured his left foot.

  D. He is an international figure.

35. In general, the Western experts’ attitude towards TCM is____.

  A. indifferent

  B. positive

  C. negative

  D. doubtful

【答案与解析】

31.C  点睛:文章第一段第一句提到了姚明是最高的。因此第二句中“towering”应该继续指姚明在身高方面的记录,因此本题选C项。towering耸立的;高大的。

32.A  定位:根据关键词opponents和difficult to control定位到第三段第二句。

点睛:根据第三段第二句中的“no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility”,可知,由于姚明身材高大且移动迅速,他很难对付。因此本题选A项。

避错:文章第二段提到了姚明的名气,但是这并不是他很难对付的原因,因此D项不符合题意。B项和C项文中没有提及,因此排除。

33.B  定位:根据关键词a series of TCM treatment定位到最后两段。

点睛:根据倒数第二段第一句中的“hoping to accelerate his recovery process”可知,姚明之所以接受中医药治疗是为了快速恢复,因此本题选B项。

避错:文章第四段只提到了他的左脚受伤,并且提到了手术成功了,因此A项和C项明显错误。D项文中没有提及,因此排除。

34.A  点睛:文章第一段第二句就介绍了姚明是NBA中最高的一名球员,因此B项表述正确。根据文章第二段可知,姚明名气大,是国际商务的一个象征,因此D项与原文表述相符。文章第四段第一句提到了姚明左脚骨折,因此C项表述正确。第四段只提到姚明有可能错过奥运会,并且根据第四段最后一句可知,这里指的是北京奥运会,因此A项表述明显错误。因此本题选A项。

35.D  定位:根据关键词western experts’ attitude和TCM定位到最后两段。

点睛:根据倒数第二段最后一句可知,“Western experts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits”,skeptical意思为“怀疑的”,因此本题选D项。

第二篇  Black Holes Trigger Stars to Self-Destruct

Scientists have long understood that super massive black holes weighing millions or billions of suns can tear apart stars that come too close. The black hole's gravity pulls harder on the nearest part of the star, an imbalance that pulls the star apart over a period of minutes or hours, once it gets close enough.

Scientists say this uneven pulling is not the only hazard facing the star. The strain of these unbalanced forces can also trigger a nuclear explosion powerful enough to destroy the star from within. Matthieu Brassart and Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris in Meudon, France, carried out computer simulations of the final moments of such an unfortunate star's life, as it veered towards a super massive black hole.

When the star gets close enough, the uneven forces flatten it into a pancake shape. Some previous studies had suggested this flattening would increase the density and temperature inside the star enough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart. But other studies had suggested that the picture would be complicated by shock waves generated during the flattening process and that no nuclear explosion should occur.

The new simulations investigated the effects of shock waves in detail, and found that even when their effects are included, the conditions favor a nuclear explosion. “There will be an explosion of the star—it will be completely destroyed,” Brassart says. Although the explosion obliterates the star, it saves some of the star's matter from being devoured by the black hole. The explosion is powerful enough to hurl much of the star's matter out of the black hole's reach, he says.

The devouring of stars by black holes may already have been observed, although at a much later stage. It is thought that several months after the event that rips the star apart, its matter starts swirling into the hole itself. It heats up as it does so, releasing ultraviolet light and X-rays.

If stars disrupted near black holes really do explode, then they could in principle allow these events to be detected at a much earlier stage, says Jules Halpern of Columbia University in New York, US. “It may make it possible to see the disruption of that star immediately if it gets hot enough,” he says.

Brassart agrees. “Perhaps it can be observed in the X-rays and gamma rays, but it’s something that needs to be more studied,” he says. Supernova researcher Chris Fryer of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US, says the deaths of these stars are difficult to simulate, and he is not sure whether the researchers have proven their Case that they explode in the process.

36. Something destructive could happen to a star that gets too close to a black hole. Which of the following destructive statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A. The black hole could tear apart the star.

B. The black hole could trigger a nuclear explosion in the star.

C. The black hole could dwindle its size considerably.

D. The black hole could devour the star.

37. According to the third paragraph, researchers differed from each other in the problem of____.

A. whether nuclear reaction would occur

B. whether the stars would increase its density and temperature

C. whether shock waves would occur

D. whether the uneven forces would flatten the stars

38. According to the fourth paragraph, which of the following is NOT true?

A. No nuclear explosion would be triggered inside the star.

B. The star would be destroyed completely.

C. Much of the star’s matter thrown by the explosion would be beyond the black hole’s reach.

D. The black hole would completely devour the star.

39. What will happen several months after the explosion of the star?

A. The star’s matter will move further away from by the black hole.

B. The black hole’s matter will heat up.

C. The torn star’s matter will swirl into the black hole.

D. The black hole’s matter will release ultraviolet light and X-rays.

40.According to the context, the word “disruption”in Paragraph 6 means____.

A. “Confusion”

B. “Tearing apart”

C. “Interruption”

D. “Flattening”

【答案与解析】

36.C  点睛:根据第一段第一句“black holes…can tear apart stars that come too close”可知,A项文章中有提及,因此排除A项。同时,根据第二段第二句可知,有可能诱发恒星内部的核爆炸,因此B项也应该排除。另外,文章第五段第一句介绍了黑洞吞噬恒星的情况,因此D项排除。只有C项文中没有提及,因此选C项。

37.A  点睛:根据第三段最后一句可知,有研究表明由于冲击波的影响,“no nuclear explosion should occur”,由此可知,关于是否引发核爆炸,科学家之间存在分歧,因此选A项。

避错:文章第三段第一、二句提到了恒星会被压扁,并且密度和质量增加,对此文章并没有提到其他相反的意见,因此排除B项和D项。第三段最后一句提到了冲击波,但是并没有怀疑冲击波是否存在,因此排除C项。

38.D  点睛:根据第四段倒数第二句可知,“尽管爆炸会毁灭恒星,但它保存了恒星的部分物质不被黑洞吞噬”,由此可知D项与原文不符合。

避错:根据第四段第二句和最后一句可知,B项和C项符合原文表达。第四段第一句话通过电脑模拟认为会发生核爆炸,但是这只是模拟的结果推测,根据这一段并不能证明一定会发生核爆炸,因此A项不符合题意,排除。

39.C  定位:根据关键词several months可定位到第五段。

点睛:根据第五段第二句可知,恒星撕裂后的几个月里,恒星物质开始自己进入黑洞的漩涡,因此本题选C项。

避错:A项明显与正确答案不一致,为错误选项。根据第五段最后一句可知,是恒星的物质升温,并且释放紫外光和X射线,B项和D项与原文表述不符,因此排除。

40.B  点睛:根据语境,第五段讲到科学家可能已经观察到比较晚的阶段,即在撕裂后恒星被吞噬的情况,第六段接着讲科学家认为可以观测到更早期的阶段,即恒星被撕裂的过程,因此第六段中的disruption的意思应该为“撕裂”,因此本题选B项。

第三篇  Don’t Count on Dung

Conservationists(自然保护主义者) may be miscalculating the numbers of the threatened animals such as elephants, say African and American researchers. The error occurs because of a flaw in the way they estimate animal numbers from the piles of dung(粪) the creatures leave behind.

The mistake could lead researchers to think that there are twice as many elephants as there really are in some regions, according to Andrew Plumptre of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in New York.

Biologist Katy Payne of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, agrees. “We really need to know elephant numbers and the evidence that we have is quite indirect,” says Payne, who electronically tracks elephants.

Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area. They also need to know the rate at which dung decays: Because it’s extremely difficult to determine these rates, however, researchers counting elephants in one region tend to rely on standard decay rates established elsewhere.

But researchers at the WCS have found that this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate and environment. Using the wrong values can lead the census astray(离开正道), says Plumptre.

He and his colleague Anthony Chifu Nchanji studied decaying elephant dung in the forests of Cameroon. They found that the dung decayed between 55 and 65 percent more slowly than the dung in the rainforests of neighbouring Gabon. If researchers use decay rates from Gabon to count elephants in Cameroon, they would probably find more elephants than are actually around. This could mean estimates in Cameroon are at least twice as high as those derived from decay rates calculated locally, says Plumptre. “However accurate your dung density estimate might be, the decay rate can severely affect the result.”

Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant’s natural range. The usual technique of monitoring only small, protected areas distorts numbers because elephants move in and out of these regions, he says. “If the elephant population increases within the protected area, you cannot determine whether it is a real increase or whether it is due to elephants moving in because they are being poached(入侵偷猎) outside.”

  Plumptre says that similar problems may also affect other animal census studies that rely on indirect evidence such as nests, tracks or burrows(地洞).

41. The word “threatened” in the first sentence of the first paragraph could be best replaced by____.

A. “endangered”

B. “frightened”

C. “killed”

D. “angered”

42. Piles of dung can’t be relied upon when it comes to estimating elephant numbers because____.

A. they are different in size

B. they scatter all over the region

C. they are different in decay rate

D. they are different in quality

43. Why do researchers estimate elephant numbers in an area by counting dung piles?

A. Because elephants are difficult to catch.

B. Because it is not possible to count elephants from a plane.

C. Because it is not possible to keep track of elephants.

D. Because elephants are shy animals.

44. According to Plumptre, the region over which a dung-pile census is carried out should be____.

A. small enough

B. well protected

C. carefully monitored

D. large enough

45. The first word "He" in paragraph 6 refers to____.

A. Andrew Plumptre

B. Katy Payne

C. Anthony Chifu Nchanji

D. the writer of the article

【答案与解析】

41.A  点睛:根据原文第一段的第一句话可知,自然保护主义者可能算错了如大象之类的濒危动物的数量。threatened意为“受到威胁的”,指的是濒危动物,与endangered“有灭绝危险的,有生命危险的”可互换。因此,本题的正确答案为A。

42.C  点睛:原文第四段说到,通过数粪堆来估计大象的数量还要考虑到粪堆的衰变速率。并且,原文第五段的第一句话又明确说到,“...this decay rate varies from region to region depending on the climate and environment…”由此可知,本题的正确答案为C项。

避错:其他选项文中均未提及,因此排除。

43.B  点睛:原文第四段的前两句话明确说到,“Counting elephants from planes is impossible in the vast rainforests of Central Africa. So researchers often estimate elephant numbers by counting dung piles in a given area”,也就是说,研究人员不得不通过大象粪便估计大象数量的原因是由于从飞机上数大象不可能的。由此可知,本题的正确答案为B。

避错:其他选项文中均未提及,因此排除。

44.D  定位:根据关键词Plumptre、the region和a dung-pile census定位到原文倒数第二段。

点睛:原文倒数第二段的第一句话就明确说到,“Plumptre also says that the dung-pile census should be carried out over a region similar in size to an elephant’s natural range.”他认为普查的地区的大小应该与大象的自然范围类似。并且根据后文分析的监测区域过小的弊端可知,Plumptre认为统计区域应该要足够大。因此,本题的正确答案为D。

避错:A项明显与正确答案不符,为错误选项。倒数第二段举了保护区监测的例子,B项与C项属于断章取义,与原文内容不符,因此排除。

45.A  点睛:代词通常指代的是前面提到且离得很近的词。上一段的末尾提到了Plumptre,由此可推知,此处的He指代的即为Plumptre。因此,本题的正确答案为A。

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

Sauna

Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath.  46   Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.

The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours.  47   Today most saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.

Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation(炎症). Asthma(气喘)patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion(阻塞) and speed recovery time.  48   The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever". The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.

Sauna is good for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes.  49   Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.

A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas.  50   Indeed, everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to become accustomed to this type of bath.

A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

B. The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

C. The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

D. The body’s core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

E. Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

F. A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

【答案与解析】

46.C  空格前面讲到芬兰人完善了蒸汽浴,空格后面提到了古罗马的干热和蒸汽浴、哥伦布发现美洲大陆前的美洲人的发汗小屋,由此推测,空格处应该也是对某个时期某个地区关于某种桑拿浴方式的介绍。C项符合该处语境,因此选C项。

47.F  本段主要介绍了早期的地下山洞桑拿浴。空格前面提到需要排烟,空格后面提到现在的桑拿浴主要使用电炉。F项中“smoke sauna”与上文中提到的山洞里充满了烟相呼应,同时通过“today”一词从早期过渡到现在的情况,从而与下文相连接。本题选F项。

48.D  空格前后都在讲桑拿浴对于治疗或者防止感冒的积极作用。D项“在蒸桑拿浴时,人体温度通常会上升l—2摄氏度,就像发低烧一样的感觉。”具体说明了桑拿浴对人体产生的影响,其中的“a slight fever”与下文中的“feed a cold, starve a fever”相呼应,符合上下文语境,因此选D项。

49.B  空格前面讲到了桑拿浴促进皮肤血液循环等作用,空格后面提到心率增加,由此可知,空格处应该介绍桑拿浴对心脏系统的影响,因此选择B项。

50.E  本段主要介绍了蒸桑拿的一些注意事项,空格前面提到了心脏病患者、老人和糖尿病患者需要咨询医生,E项提到了孕妇不宜进行桑拿浴,与上文连接紧密,符合本段主题,因此选E项。

第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题l分,共15分)

下面短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定l个最佳选项。

An Early Form of Jazz Music

Music comes in many forms; most countries have a style of their own. At the turn of the last century,  51   jazz was born, America had no prominent  52   of its own. No one knows exactly when jazz was invented or by whom. But it began to be  53   in the early 1890s. Jazz is America’s contribution to  54   music. In contrast to classical music, which  55   formal European traditions, jazz is spontaneous and free in form. It bubbles with energy,  56   the moods, interests, and emotions of the people. In the 1920s jazz  57   like America. And so it does today. The  58   of the music are as interesting as the music itself. American Negroes, or blacks, as they are called today, were the jazz pioneers. They were brought to the Southern states  59   slaves. They were sold to plantation owners and forced to work long hours. When a Negro died, his friends and relatives  60   a procession to carry the body to the cemetery. In New Orleans, a band often accompanied the  61  . On the way to the cemetery the band played slow, solemn music, suited to the occasion.  62   on the way home the mood changed. Spirits lifted. Death had removed one of their number, but the living were glad to be  63  . The band played  64   music, improvising on both the harmony and the melody of the tunes  65   at the funeral. This music made everyone want to dance. It was an early form of jazz.

51. A. while  B. when   C. since D. as

52. A. music B. songs   C. melodies  D. tunes

53. A. listened  B. noticed  C. heard D. found

54. A. classical  B. sacred  C. popular D. serious

55. A. introduces  B. follows C. takes D. approaches

56. A. disclosing  B. explaining C. expressing D. exposing

57. A. sounded  B. felt  C. looked D. seemed

58. A. discoveries  B. originals   C. resources  D. origins

59. A. like   B. for   C. as D. by

60. A. composed  B. formed  C. hosted  D. demonstrated

61. A. body  B. demonstration   C. procession D. march

62. A. Furthermore   B. Similarly  C. But  D. Therefore

63. A. live   B. alive C. life  D. there

64. A. sad B. solemn  C. happy  D. funeral

65. A. sung  B. showed C. played  D. expressed

【答案与解析】

51.B  语法结构题。空格所在的句子成分为定语从句修饰前面的时间the turn of the last century,其中空格处在从句中作状语,因此这里需要填入一个引导定语从句的关系副词when,因此本题选B项。

52.A  语意理解题。句意:美国还没有属于自己的突出的音乐。这里泛指音乐,B、C、D项的词义都十分具体,不符合题意,本题选A项。

53.C  词义辨析题。爵士乐是音乐,所以noticed 和 found 都不合适。listen是不及物动词,在这里使用时需要加上to。C项heard在这里表示“听到”,符合题意,因此选C项。

54.C  语意理解题。爵士乐不属于古典音乐,也不属于严肃音乐或圣乐,而是流行音乐。因此本题选C项。

55.B  词义辨析题。句意:与遵循正式的欧洲传统的古典音乐相反……。follow“跟随;遵循”,符合题意因此选B项。introduce介绍;引进。approach接近;着手处理。

56.C  词义辨析题。句意:表达了人们的心情、兴趣和感情。express意思为“表达”,与后面的moods、interests和emotions等词搭配符合此处语境,因此选C项。disclose泄露。explain解释。expose暴露。

57.A  词义辨析题。句意:爵士乐听上去有了美国特色。爵士乐是音乐,因此这里选A项。

58.D  语意理解题。下文主要讲了爵士乐的起源, origin“起源”,因此本题选D项,discovery发现。resource资源。original原型;原作。

59.C  词义辨析题。句意:他们曾作为奴隶被贩卖给南方各州。这里表示“黑人是作为奴隶”,因此填入介词as。

60.B  词义辨析题。句意:当一个黑人去世后,他的亲朋好友会形成一支队列,将遗体送到墓地。form与a procession搭配,指形成一支队列,符合题意,因此选B项。compose 构成。host举办。demonstrate展示。

61.C  语意理解题。句意:在新奥尔良,葬礼行进队列常常有乐队随行。前面提到形成队列,因此选C项“procession”。

62.C  语意理解题。空格前面讲到去墓地的路上,这里讲回来的路上,二者形成对比,所以应该选C项But,表示转折。

63.B  词义辨析题。句意:但是活着的人应该快乐地生活。be alive表示 “活着”,与前面的“死”相对,符合语境,因此选B项。

64.C  语意理解题。句意:前面提到他们情绪高涨,很高兴能活着,所以音乐应该是轻快的,因此本题选C项。

65.C  词义辨析题。句意:即兴地改编着葬礼上演奏的曲子的和声和曲调。play与tunes搭配表示乐队演奏曲子,符合语境,因此选C项。

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