[电子书]2018年大学生英语竞赛B类英语专业教材讲义全文翻译笔记考试历年真题模拟试题复习题库

2018年大学生英语竞赛B类英语专业教材讲义全文翻译笔记考试历年真题模拟试题复习题库
微信关注公众号“冲刺线”开启微信学习时代,还有免费课程相送哦!
作者:冲刺线教育
出版社:冲刺宝典
版次:1 资料更新时间:2018-01-07 14:52
资料格式:电子书 资料大小:40.32 M
页数:262 下载次数:
免费阅读

第一章 听 力

第一节 命题分析

1.考核要求

全国大学生英语竞赛听力部分主要考查考生获取口头信息的能力(理解主旨大意、听懂重要事实和细节、推断隐含的意义、判断言语的交际功能、分辨说话人的观点态度等),要求考生在听完听力材料后了解内容大意,抓住有关细节,并进行综合、归纳、推理,领会说话人的观点、态度、意图等。

2.试题结构

听力理解部分共30题,共计30分。B类竞赛主要从四个方面来考查考生的听力理解能力:短对话、长对话、新闻、笔记填空。

3.试题特点

(1)出题方式较为稳定,基本可归纳为四个方面:短对话、长对话、短新闻、笔记填空。

(2)英语竞赛听力发音为标准的英音或美音,基本不会涉及方言;语速每分钟150词左右(专八水平或略低于专业八级水平)。

(3)听力内容取材广泛,但不会涉及专业话题,基本为日常生活相关的内容,同时不乏一些社会热点。

(4)对话及新闻部分的录音只放一遍,笔记填空部分放两遍(2011年之前只放一遍),笔记填空部分难度相对降低,但听力部分总体难度依然不低,是考生失分较多的地方。

第二节 技巧指南

为了帮助考生进一步明确所要考查的目标,本书对听力内容充分分析、概括、总结,并做出正确的推理、判断,最后得出答案,下面分别讲解四种类型考题的特点及解题技巧。

◆短对话

1.试题特点

(1)注重考查逻辑思维

在全国大学生英语竞赛听力对话部分中,很少有题目能够从对话原文中直接找到答案,大多数题目都要求参赛学生深刻分析对话内容,从而判断出对话人的意图、态度或意见等。

(2)对话内容涉及面广

无论是长对话还是短对话,话题基本以衣、食、住、行等日常生活为主。

(3)对话的方式多为一问一答

在短对话听力测试中,对话多为问答式,首先由第一个人提出一个问题,再由第二个人予以回答。或者由第一个人陈述一个观点,第二个人表示附和或反对。问答的回合数一般不会超过三个。

2.解题攻略

短对话作为听力理解部分较为简单的一类题型,有其特定的解题技巧。

(1)提前快速浏览题目及选项,把握听音重点

考生应充分利用试卷发下到Directions播完的这段时间,迅速浏览试卷上的听力选项,这样在听的时候能有的放矢地捕捉关键信息,弄清对话环境和意图,最后排除各干扰项,做出正确选择。

例1: [2014年B类初赛]

What sort of shoes would the man buy?

A. An expensive pair of shoes.

B. An affordable pair of shoes.

C. A pair of trainers.

D. A stout pair of shoes.

【听音重点】根据题目中“what sort of shoes”和“buy”,可以猜测对话话题是关于买鞋,听录音时应重点注意男士要买的鞋子有什么特点。

【录音原文】

M:Sarah, I’m a bit broke at the moment, so I don’t want to spend too much today, butI’d like to shop around for a pair of shoes that don’t cost an arm and a leg.

W:Yeah, some shoes are over-priced, aren’t they? We could check out the new shoestore next to the delicatessen.

例2: [2014年B类决赛]

Which kind of transport is the man suggesting that the woman takes?

A. Car.

B. Train.

C. Coach.

D. Ship.

【听音重点】由题干中的transport以及选项中的四种交通工具,可知对话内容是关于女士使用何种交通工具,听音时要注意男士的具体建议是哪一种。

【录音原文】

W: I’mlooking for a convenient way to travel the country.

M: Haveyou heard of hiring a coach? Many people use this form of transport. It’s cheapand very popular.

W: No.I’ve not heard of it. Tell me about it.

M: It’slike going on an ocean cruise except that you go by land. Everything is plannedfor you from the moment you step on board a luxury coach.

(2)注意捕捉说话人的弦外之音

对话部分有很多问题不是针对讲话人的字面意思发问的,考生必须体会到讲话人的言外之意,才能推断出正确选项。

例:[2012年B类初赛]

What does the man mean?

A.The woman need not consider her advisor in her decision.

B.The woman should not take Dr. Sullivan’s course.

C.The woman need not worry about her physics course.

【录音原文】

W:I’d like to take Dr. Sullivan’s section of Physics 100, but my advisor is teaching it too, and I don’t want her to beoffended.

M:Who cares?

W:Well, I don’t want to get on her bad side.

M: Iwouldn’t worry about it.

Q:What does the man mean?

【解析】女士想选Dr. Sullivan的课,而她的导师也开此课,她便向男士征求意见,该对话中男士并未直接表达他的意见,但是由男士说的Who cares?可知,男士是告诉女士做决定时不用考虑导师。

(3)熟练掌握有关日常生活等方面的词语、习语、句型等

熟悉日常生活中常用的词汇、短语、习语、句型,能使考生听到相关对话时迅速做出反应,提高答题效率和正确率。

例:[2008年B类初赛]

A. Everyday.

B. Twice aweek. 

C. Twice amonth.

【录音原文】

A: Ireally love this bar. They always have great drink specials.

B: Doyou know when they have “Happy Hour”?

A:Every Friday and Saturday from 6 p. m. to 8 p. m.

Q:How often does the bar have “Happy Hour”?

【解析】由对话可知,该酒吧每周的周五和周六两天是Happy Hour。Happy Hour为酒吧术语,表示减价供应饮料等的时间。

3.题型分析

听力短对话试题类型多样,这里主要介绍常涉及到的七种题型及针对各题型的答题技巧。

(1)地点与方向(Locations and Directions)

地点与方向类试题在对话中经常出现。这类题目根据对话内容,就有关地点提问,要求考生从所给出的选项中选出正确答案。这些地点包括对话进行的地点、对话涉及的事件的地点、涉及的人物的地点或人物来自哪里及要去的地点。

考题类型:

①直接型。地点在对话中会直接出现,但提到的地点通常不止一个,考生需要对其进行辨认、选择。

例:[2010年B类初赛]

Whichairport will the speakers depart from?

A. Heathrow.  

B. Milan.  

C. Liverpool.

【录音原文】

W:Berry, we really must book our flight soon.

M:Yes, I know. We can do it on the Internet. Let’s see. There is a flight fromLiverpool to Bangkok every day. But we have to change at Milan.

W: Sothere isn’t a direct flight?

M: Wecan get a direct flight from Heathrow. But it’s more expensive.

W:Let’s get a flight from Liverpool then.

【解析】在对话最后女士说Let’s get a flight from Liverpool then,可推测他们最后会从Liverpool出发。

②间接型。没有直接提到地点或方向,要求考生根据对话的主题和内容进行推理判断。

例1:[2014年B类决赛]

Wheredoes the conversation take place?

A.In a supermarket.

B. Ina cafeteria.

C. Ata wedding ceremony.

D. Ata cocktail party.

【录音原文】

W: Howabout some chicken supreme, then? That looks quite nice.

M: OK.What do we need then, apart from chicken?

W: Anonion,some lemonjuice—oh, put a lemon on the list, can you? Can we start a shopping list?

M: Yes,what about dessert? I know I will do peaches and ice cream.

W: OK. Let me take it.

【解析】对话中双方主要就需要买什么食材展开讨论,其中女士问男士要不要买点鸡肉,随后指出还需要洋葱、柠檬汁,并提出把柠檬纳入购物单,由此可推知对话发生在一家超市里。

例2:[2011年B类初赛]

Wheredoes the conversation probably take place?

A. Ata railway station.

B. Ata travel agency.

C.At an airport.

【录音原文】

W:Can I have your ticket, sir? And your passport? … Ah, I’m sorry, sir, but I’mafraid this flight is fully booked.

M:That’s not possible. I confirmed the booking a few days ago.

W:I’m very sorry, sir, but the flight has been overbooked. We can offer you aplace on a later flight. There’s one at 16:30.

【解析】对话中提到flight、ticket、passport、booking等可知此对话发生在机场,故选C项。

答题技巧:

对于直接型考题,考生应先看题目,确定题目所问的对象是男士还是女士,然后再针对对话中的地点进行辨认、选择。

对于间接型考题,考生则应特别注意对话的主题,如在学校时,话题常围绕学习。这类考题所涉及的场所通常有:学校、邮局、图书馆、商店、医院、餐馆、机场、车站、银行等。考生要注意与这些特定场所有关的词语。

常考场景相关词汇总结如下:

学校用语:

bachelor’sdegree学士学位

master’s degree硕士学位

doctor’s degree 博士学位

graduateceremony毕业典礼

academic year学年

make-upexamination补考

required/obligatorycourse必修课

optional/electivecourse选修课

mid-termexamination期中考试

finalexamination期末考试

register/enroll 注册

campus校园

credit学分

quiz小测验

freshman大一学生

sophomore大二学生

junior大三学生

senior大四学生

postgraduate研究生

seminar研讨会

scholarship奖学金

tuition学费

diploma毕业证书

society学生社团

student union学生会

dormitory宿舍

clinic校医院

major专业

thesis论文

机场、车站用语:

first class头等舱

economy class经济舱

express trains快车

direct flight直达航班

internationalflight国际航班

domestic flight 国内航班

behind theschedule晚点/误点

check-inprocedure登机手续

left-luggageoffice行李寄存处

stewardess/airhostess空姐

steward空中先生

waiting lounge 候机大厅

waiting room候车室

conductor列车长

car attendant列车员

passport护照

visa签证

airliner班机

flight航班

board登机

gate登机口

land着陆

departure起飞

take off起飞

seat belt安全带

银行用语:

current account现金账户

exchange rate汇率

foreign currency外汇

traveler’s check旅游支票

open an account开户

savings account储蓄账户

interest rate利率

installment分期付款

credit card信用卡

passbook存折

withdraw取钱

overdraw透支

cash现金

check支票

deposit存款

loan贷款

teller 出纳

图书馆用语:

loan desk借书处

library card借书卡

reference room参考资料室

reference book参考书

issue(期刊、报纸)期

due(书、作业等)到期应交还的

catalogue目录

current issue现刊

back issue过刊

periodical期刊

fiction/novel小说

index索引

renew续借

overdue超期

pay a fine交罚金

bookshelf书架

餐馆用语:

go Dutch AA制

Chinese food中餐

Western stylefood西餐

soft drink不含酒精的饮料

be full/stuffed吃饱

pay a bill付账

treat sb. tosth.请某人吃某物

rare三分熟的

medium五成熟的

well-done全熟的

appetizer开胃菜

refreshment茶点

cold dish冷盘

dessert甜点

soup汤

tender嫩的

menu菜单

tip小费

buffet自助餐

snack快餐

order点菜

邮局用语:

airmail航空快件

ordinary/regularmail平信

registered mail挂号信

stampscounter/window卖邮票处

ordinary telegram普通电报

urgent telegram加急电报

express mail快递

special delivery限时专递

overweightcharge超重费

return address 回函地址

sender’s address寄件人地址

package包裹

parcel form包裹单

postage邮资

zip code 邮政编码

remittance汇款

商店用语:

dailynecessities日用品

check-out/cashdesk付款台

men’s/women’sdepartment男/女装部

Cash or charge? 付现金还是记账?

bargain讨价还价

one price不还价

fixed prices定价

promotion促销

20% discount off打八折

packing/wrapping包装

on sale甩卖

sold out卖完

in stock有货

out of stock无货

cashier出纳员

fashion时尚

医院用语:

blood pressure血压

emergency room急诊

operation room手术室

give aninjection注射

visiting hours探视时间

surgeon外科医生

physician内科医生

traditionalChinese medicine中医

take one’stemperature量体温

dentist牙医

cough咳嗽

flu流感

fever发烧

headache头痛

sneeze打喷嚏

a sore throat 嗓子疼

indigestion消化不良

prescription处方

check-up 体检

ward病房

treat治疗

cure/heal治愈

dose剂量

tablet药片

capsule胶囊

first-aid kit 急救箱

宾馆用语:

room service客房服务

single/doubleroom单/双人间

check in/out 登记入住/付账后离开

reservation预定

reception desk登记处

service counter服务台

duration of stay停留时间

suite套间

inn客栈

full up注满了

vacancy空房

理发店用语:

hairdresser美发师

blow the hair吹头发

haircut理发

hairstyle发型

beard胡须

mustache髭

curly卷发的

bob剪短

shave刮胡子

cut剪发

海关用语:

allowance限额

go through thecustoms通关

declare申报

duty free免税的

visa签证

办公室用语:

vacancy空缺

appointment预约

candidate求职者

job applicant求职者

fire/dismiss解雇

employer老板

employee雇员

resume简历

scanner扫描仪

printer打印机

fax传真

file文件

copier复印机

schedule时间表

法庭用语:

jury陪审团

accuse控诉

My Lord/YourHonor 法官大人

guilty有罪的

innocent清白的

crime犯罪

witness证人

(2)时间与数字(Time and Numerals)

时间与数字类的题目包括直接型和隐含型。

考题类型:

①直接型。该类考题不需要计算,答案直接出现在对话中,要求考生根据题目从所给出选项中直接辨认出答案。主要考查考生对数字的辨认及记忆能力。

例1:[2013年B类决赛]

What time does the flight leave for Madrid?

A.  

B.  

C.

【录音原文】

W: I’mso excited about our trip to Spain. I hope we don’t miss the plane!

M: Ofcourse we won’t miss it. But we must make sure that we check in at ten to six.The flight’s at ten to eight.

W:Oh, I thought the flight would be at ten to ten.

M: No, silly. That’s thearrival time in Madrid!

【解析】题目问飞机什么时间起飞去往马德里。对话中男士告诉女士飞机在7:50(ten to eight)起飞。而女士认为飞机是在9:50(ten to ten)起飞。男士反驳道No, silly. That’s thearrival time in Madrid! 由此可知飞机在7:50起飞,到达马德里的时间为9:50。

例2:[2012年B类初赛]

How old does the boy have to be to get his own membership of thegym?

A. 12 years old.  

B. 18 yearsold.  

C. 20 years old.

【录音原文】

M: I’dlike to become a member of your club, but I’m not sure if I’m too young.

W:Well, if you’re under 18, you would need a parent or guardian over the age of 20to get a family membership and include you on that. But actually anyone can usethe gym facilities; we have a girl who’s 12 and who comes here to train in theswimming pool every day.

【解析】对话中提到如果不满18岁需要监护人才能成为体育馆的成员,以此推测年满18岁便可独自成为会员。

②隐含型。选项中的时间或数字不会直接出现在对话里,有时需进行简单的计算。

例:[2011年B类初赛]

Howmuch does it cost for a couple with two children to get into the castle?

A.£15.

B. £10.50.

C. £12.

【录音原文】

M:Can you tell me how much it costs to get into Sudeley Castle?

W:Yes, it costs £4.50 for adults and £3 forchildren.

【解析】女士说成人票价是4.5英镑,儿童是3英镑。一对夫妇和两个孩子总计15英镑,故选A。

答题技巧:

对于直接型考题,考生需要根据题目和对话内容在三个数字中进行选择,因此考生可以在听力开始前利用短暂的间隙浏览题目,查看题目所提问的对象,之后在听对话内容时将该对象所对应的数字记录下来。

对于隐含型考题的答案有时需要进行简单的计算,如将数字进行加减等。这要求考生在听对话时须将对话中出现的所有数字和其对应的对象记下来,以便根据题目要求进行计算。

①对于时间题,要注意以下几点:

a. 时间、日期和年代的读法

“-teen”和“-ty”是众多考生容易混淆的,应该注意区分。主要区别为:第一重音不同。前者重音在词末,而后者重音在词首;第二是否有鼻音。结尾发音有鼻音/n/的单词为“-teen”。如:fourteen和forty, thirteen和thirty,等。

b. 时间

5:12 fivetwelve/twelve past five

7:15 seven fifteen/aquarter past seven (after seven)

8:45 eightforty-five/a quarter to nine

11:50 eleven fifty/tento twelve

2:00 pm/14:00  two pm/fourteen hundred hours

12:00 twelve/noon/midday

24:00 midnight

c. 日期与年代

3月15日 March 15th/the 15th of March

每隔一天(每两天) every other day/every two days

几天前theother day/a few days ago

两星期fortnight/period of two weeks

20世纪  the twentieth century

19世纪40年代 in the eighteen forties

公元前450年(450BC) four hundred and fifty BC/fourfifty BC

②对于数字题,要注意以下表达方式(相同意义的不同表达):

a. 多位数的表达

10 ten/a decade 

12 twelve/a dozen 

1960 nineteen sixty

1900 nineteen hundred

b. 分数与小数

分数:分子用基数表示,分母用序数表示

1/2 (0.5) one half (zero point five)

1/4 (0.25) one fourth/a quarter (zero point twenty five)

c. 号码、货币

电话号码按位数逐个读出来如87316789

房间号码、邮政编码、街道等:180 one-eighty/one-eight-zero

注意数量单位与单位基数的不同。如:a penny=one cent, a nickel=five cents, a quarter=twenty-five cents,a half dollar=fifty cents.

③注意数字换算

掌握听力课堂中所列的与数字相关的表达方式。由于每个对话间隔的时间短,既要回忆对话内容,又要阅读选项,还要进行计算,因此熟练掌握换算进率是十分必要的。

星期、日期、时、分的换算进率分别为7、30/31、24、60等。

Aquarter 指时间是15分钟,指月份是一季度(三个月),指百分比为25%。

(3)身份与关系(Identity and Relationships)

对话中身份与关系类题是指根据对话内容就与对话有关人物的职业、身份或人物之间的关系提问,要求参赛学生从所给选项中选出一个正确答案的题型。

该类考题包括考查职业身份和考查二者关系两种,其提问角度主要有以下四种:

①就对话人某一方的职业身份提问。

Whatis the woman’s job?

②就对话人之间的关系提问。

What’sthe relationship between the man and the woman?

③就对话中涉及的第三者的职业、身份提问。

Whatdo you think is Mary’s profession?

④就对话中涉及的第三者与第四者之间的关系提问。

Whatis the relationship between Tom and Jerry?

考题类型:

①考查职业身份

这类题涉及的职业主要有教师、学生、图书管理员、医生/牙医、营业员、服务员、修理工、家庭主妇等。

例:[2007年B类初赛]

A. A repair man. 

B. Afriend. 

C. A retailer.

【录音原文】

Listento this man telephoning someone about his washing machine. Who is he talkingto?

—I’vebeen in touch with them already and they said it’s not up to them because theguarantee doesn’t cover it. So I was wondering whether he might be able to comeand have a look. I don’t suppose you could give me any idea of what the chargemight be.

—Yes,I see. The thing is I’ve got some friends coming around this weekend and...

—Oh,that’d be great.

【解析】这位男士在第一句话中所说的them指厂家,因为guarantee中不包括这一项,所以他只好求助于修理工。

②考查二者之间关系

这类题涉及的关系主要有:教师与学生、医生与病人、丈夫与妻子、借书者与馆员、旅客与服务员、老板与雇员、修理工与顾客等。

例:[2011年B类初赛]

What is the most probable relationship betweenthe two speakers?

A. They are colleagues.

B. They are classmates.

C.They are a newly-married couple.

【录音原文】

W: Ihave to go out of town on a family emergency. Can you cover my speech class forme?

M:Sure, but I’ve never taught speech. I’m sure you’ll tell me what to do. I hopeyour emergency works out okay.

W:Thanks. My mother’s in the hospital, and I need to arrange for her discharge.

【解析】根据女士的问话“Can you cover my speechclass for me?”可知,两人均是老师,在商量代课(cover a class)的问题。因此两人的关系是同事。

答题技巧:

①如选项含职业、身份及关系方面的词汇,可断定该题属于身份与关系类对话。

②对话中一般不会直接提及人物的身份与关系,需要通过对话中的预期及关键词来进行判断。因此,考生应该掌握与特定语言环境及表示人物身份职业相关的词汇,并在听题时注意捕捉与人物职业身份相关的关键词。

③应该注意对话人的语气。不同关系的人物对话,其语气特征会比较明显。如夫妻、恋人之间常用比较亲昵的语气;同学、朋友之间常用比较随意的语气;而下属对老板则常用比较恭敬的语气。注意体会说话者的口气、语调及所用的称呼,这将有助于判断对话者之间的关系。如:

Dr. 是学生对老师或病人对医生的称呼

Mr., Mrs.反映下级对上级或学生对老师的称呼

Prof.用于对教授的称呼

Darling用于夫妻之间

常考身份与关系相关词汇总结如下:

职业身份:

Postman(邮递员):

deliver, letter, parcel, mail, post, airmail, registered letter,postcard, mailbox, postage, etc.

Repairman(修理工):

fix, plug, gear, garage, vacuum, air-conditioner, heater,refrigerator, washing machine, drain, microwave, switch, plumber,etc.

somethingis wrong with…

Police(警察):

speeding, traffic light, driver’s license, fine, give a ticket to ,etc.

Taxi-driver(出租车司机):

fare, meter, get off, change, tip, destination, etc.

Whereshall I take you?

Whereto?

Custom officer(报关员):

passport, restricted articles, free of duty, etc.

Doyou have anything to declare?

Anythingdutiable?

Librarian(图书管理员):

borrow, library card, periodical, journal, catalogue, book shelf,due, overdue, renew ,etc.

Bank Clerk(银行职员):

balance, cash, check, an open account, interest, overdraft,withdraw, deposit,etc.

两者关系:

Doctors and Patients(医生和病人):

examination, prescribe, injection, operation, fever, cough,headache, diagnose, medicine, flu, surgery, be operated on, indigestion, etc.

What’sthe matter with you?

What’swrong (with you)?

Isuffered…

Teachers and Students(教师和学生):

textbook, course, grade, mark, exam, term paper, test, assignment,homework, lesson, class score, scholarship, pass, fail, semester, credit, oralexam, written exam, make up an exam, school record, tuition, drop out,etc.

Waiter or Waitress(顾客和服务生):

shop-assistant , attendant menu, order, tip, on sale, for sale,marked price, discount, selling season, shopping record, treat, go Dutch,steak, ham, out of style, in fashion, all the rage, in good taste ,etc.

Whatcan I do for you?

May Ihelp you?

May Itake your order now?

Wouldyou like something else?

Willthis be cash or charge/check/cheque?

Airport Staff andCustomer(机场人员和乘客):

cabin door, gate, business class, economy class, first class,restricted articles, single ticket, return ticket, difference in time, airsick,seat belt fasten, take off, board, land ,etc.

礼貌用语: Hi! Please! How do you do? How are you? Hello!

Boss and secretary(老板和秘书):

typing,operating, copy, files, document, report, telephone, appointment, timetable,arrangement, etc.

  (4)态度与建议(Attitude and Suggestion)

考生需根据对话内容的关键词、上下文甚至语气、语调的内涵意义并利用逻辑思维能力进行判断,找出对话中人物对某事件或某人的观点态度。

常见的提问方式:

Howdoes the man/woman feel about?

Whatdoes the man/woman think of...?

Whatdoes the man/woman mean?

Whatdoes the man/woman say about...?

例1:[2010年B类初赛]

Whatdoes the woman think of Matt?

A. He is nottrustworthy.  

B. He is quitehonest.  

C. He ishelpful.

【录音原文】

M:Where is Matt? He promised to meet me here this afternoon.

W:You shouldn’t believe what Matt says. He often tells lies and breaks promises.

M: Ido not agree. I know he sometimes forgets things, but he isn’t dishonest. Andif I had a problem, I’d ask Matt for advice.

W:Well, I wouldn’t. When Joan told him about her boyfriend, everyone in theschool soon learned about it. He can’t keep a secret.

【解析】女士的话如“You shouldn’t believe what Matt says”,“Well, I wouldn’t”以及“He can’t keep a secret”都充满了她对Matt的消极评论和不信任。

例2:[2014年B类初赛]

Whatdoes the woman think of the restaurant?

A. Itwas very luxurious and exotic.

B.Its dishes were to her taste.

C.Its service was first-class.

D.It was the worst place for a meal.

【录音原文】

M:So, what’s the most unusual restaurant you’ve ever been to?

W:Oh, a really extraordinary place called Jurassic Noah. My first impression ofthe place was a bit of off-putting. It looked like the last place on earthwhere you were likely to get a good meal.

M: Well, it certainly soundsunusual!

【解析】录音中女士说其对该餐馆的第一印象是a bitoff-putting(有点令人厌恶),随后提到“It looked like the lastplace on earth where you were likely to get a good meal”,由此可知女士认为该餐厅是最不适合去吃饭的地方。故选D。

答题技巧:

①答案通常与后者的话有关,选项中有关第一说话人的话通常不是正确答案。

第一人态度为肯定时,第二人的回答有:

支持:yes,sure, of course, that’s a good idea, out of question...

反对:no,not really, not likely, not at all, no way, out of the question...

第一人态度为否定,第二人的回答有:

支持:no,of course not, you don’t

反对:yes,of course, you do

②看清问题,找准听音重点。

观点态度类试题主要是判断对话中说话人对所谈及的事或人所持的观点及态度。考生做这类试题时要注意理解对话中的大意,并且还要注意问题中考查的是男士还是女士的观点,以免判断错误。

③这里要注意几种关于态度的表达方式:

a. 双重否定表肯定

notimpossible, can’t agree... any more, not unusual等

b. 部分否定的词

not all…(或:all…not), not every(或:every…not), not always等

c. 虚拟语气表假设,非真实情况

④熟练掌握表示建议的常用句式:

Whynot…?

Whydon’t you/we…?

Howabout…?

You’dbetter…

Youmay/might as well…

If Iwere you, I would…

I’drather you…

(5)行为与计划(Action and Plan)

行为与计划类题目的选项常以to + V(或不带to的不定式)短语形式、V-ing短语形式或V-ed短语形式出现。对话中常会出现一个或几个动作,要求考生根据对话的内容,迅速记忆提及的动作及相关信息、动作发生的前后顺序以及动作与动作发出者的对应关系等。

该类试题要求考生对对话的主题及题目中说话人的行为进行判断,主要的提问方式有:

Whatdoes the man want to do?

Whatis the man planning to do?

Whatis the man going to do?

Whatare the two speakers talking about?

①考查过去的行为

例:[2008年B类样题]

A.All of them landed safely.

B.Some were wounded, but there were no deaths.

C.Some were kidnapped.

【录音原文】

M:The hijacking incident ended with the death of the three kidnappers.

W:How were the passengers?

M:Well, all the passengers and crew members landed on their feet finally.

Q:What happened to the passengers?

【解析】录音提到所有的乘客和机组人员都安然脱险,也就是说他们都安全着陆了。

②考查将来的行为

例:[2014年B类初赛]

Whatdo the speakers plan to do on Friday?

A. Watch aballet performance. 

B. Write apaper.

C. Go to aplay. 

D. Dine out atlunch time.

【录音原文】

M:So, let’s do something on Friday then. I’ve got the paper in front of me so letme see what’s on. Mm… there’s the Kirov Ballet at the Playhouse.

W: Ilike ballet. That would be nice. What time does itstart?

M:Well, it’s on at 2:10, 5:10 and 8:10.

W:Let’s go to the 5:10 and then have something to eat afterwards.

【解析】对话中男士首先提议星期五去做点什么,并指出将会有KirovBallet at the Playhouse,于是女士问对方表演开始的时间,最后双方确定5:10去那儿。因此A项“观看芭蕾表演”是说话者在周五将做的事情。

③考查现在的行为

例:[2007年B类初赛]

A.Asking the customer’s opinion.

  B. Offering a cheapsample.

C.Explaining a price rise.

【录音原文】

Youare walking round the market when you hear this woman talking to a customer.What is she doing?

Look,I’ll tell you what. You just take a couple home tonight. I’ll knock off 50pence. How’s that? And try them, you’ll love them. I promise you. And thentomorrow you can come and tell me if I’m not right. What do you say to thatthen? I cannot say fairer than now, can I?

【解析】录音中提到他们谈话的地点是在the market,其中一人说你可拿一双回家,价格已经降了50便士。由此可知,B选项符合题意。

答题技巧:

听对话时要对与动作有关的内容特别注意,抓住表示时间顺序的词语,如since,before, after, then等,还要特别注意对话中所使用的时态和重复出现的词,这些往往是答题的关键。

(6)因果(Cause and Effect)

此类题较难,因为原因的阐述通常会出现在第一句,容易被忽视,且该类题信号词较少,需听完全部对话后才能明白其内容重点。

常见的提问方式:

Whycan’t sb. do sth.?

Whyis sb. ...?

Whydoes sb. ...?

例1:[2013年B类初赛]

Whydoesn’t the man apply for a job at the factory?

A.He doesn’t think there is a chance for him to get a job there.

B.The factory is closing down during the summer vocation.

C. Hedoesn’t think that is a good place to work in.

【录音原文】

W:How are you going to spend your summer break?

M: Ireally need to work to pay for next semester’s tuition.

W:Why don’t you see if you could get a job at the factory?

M: Ihear they’re laying off workers there.

【解析】录音中男士提到他想要工作赚钱支付下个学期的学费。然后女士提出建议“为什么不看看能否在工厂里得到一份工作呢”,男士回答到他听说那里正在裁员。由此可知,男士认为他不可能在那里得到一份工作,所以选A。

例2:[2013年B类决赛]

Whycan’t the woman meet the man on Monday?

A.She has a conference to attend.

B.She will have to work.

C. She will not be in town.

【录音原文】

W:So, the 20th won’t work for you. How about something the following week?

M:That would be the week of the 23rd. Let’s see... I have time on Mondayafternoon and Wednesday Morning. Does either of those work for you?

W:Monday doesn’t; I’ll be out of town. Wednesday, later in the morning would.Say, 11:30?

M:OK, 11:30 Wednesday.

【解析】男士问女士Monday是否有时间,女士提到“Monday doesn’t; I’ll be out of town”,由此可知星期一女士不能和男士见面是因为她不在城里。

答题技巧:

①注意听清第二个人的讲话内容,尤其是当第二个人使用I’d like to..., but ...句式时,but之后就是具体原因。

②熟悉一些表示因果关系的词和短语,在听录音时要特别注意以下词或短语之后的内容。

Words: because, as, for, since, in that, hence, therefore,consequently, cause, reason

Expressions: dueto, owing to, because of, thanks to, on account for, as a result, result from,result in, lead to, give rise to, contribute to, attribute to, now that, sothat, so…that, such…that, in order to, be responsible for

(7)气候与天气

谈论天气的人一般是朋友或家庭成员,内容涉及气候、温度、环境及天气对人们生活和出行的影响。

例:[2008年B类样题]

A. Mild.   

B. Draughty. 

C. Hot.

【录音原文】

M: Iguess we’ll have a hot summer again.

W: Iknow. Last summer was mild. Do you remember our first summer here? Thetemperature stayed about 100 degrees Fahrenheit for ten straight days. There wasn’ta breeze anywhere.

Q:What do you know about their first summer?

【解析】录音中提到他们在这里的第一个夏天连续十天气温高达100°F,一点风都没有,由此可推断那个夏天是很热的。Draughty通风良好的。

答题技巧:

解答该类题型要注意气候与天气的相关词汇及短语:

climate,forecast, get worse, sunny, bright, warm (up), cloudy, overcast, gloomy, windy,foggy, rain, snow, snow storm, etc.

冷暖:temperature,hot, cold, such a severe winter, etc.

(8)主题(Subject)

该类题目要求考生根据对话中的内容判断他们讨论的主题是什么。

常见提问方式为:

Whatare they/the two speakers talking about?

Whatdo we learn from the conversation?

...

例1:[2009年B类初赛]

Twopeople are talking. What are they talking about?

A. A TVprogramme. 

B. A film. 

C. A concert.

【录音原文】

M: Didyou enjoy it?

W: Notreally. I thought it was rather disappointing.

M:Oh? Why is that?

W: Itwasn’t really what I expected. It went on too long.

M:No. But you must admit that on the big screen, it looked great.

W:Well, I think it would have been just as good seeing it at home.

M:Ah, But it won’t be on video till next year.

W: Ican’t wait that long.

【解析】由对话可知他们不是在家看的节目,排除选项A。对话中提到on thebig screen,可以推测他们是在看电影而不是听音乐会。

例2:[2013年B类初赛]

Whatare the speakers talking about?

A. Hanging apicture.  

B. Framing a painting.  

C. Buying newglasses.

【录音原文】

M: Weneed to replace the glass in that picture frame before we can hang thesepictures in the dormitory lobby.

W: Wecan go to the framing shop and have it done now.

【解析】录音中男士提到他们需要把相框里的玻璃替换掉,才能把这些图画挂在宿舍大厅里。女士接着说“现在我们可以去框架店做一个”。由此可知他们谈论的是给图画装框架的事情。

答题技巧:

主题型试题主要考查学生对短对话的主要内容的把握能力。考生需要抓住关键字或主题句,根据所获得的关键信息,来分析概括主题。

注意不要只从对话一方的话语中寻找答案。由于是考查谈话主题,因此双方的话语中应都含有与主题相关的线索词。

◆长对话

1.试题特点

(1)取材广泛

长对话的涉及题材十分广泛,如选课、考试、借书、打工、社团活动等大学校园内发生的与学习、生活及娱乐有关的内容,人物关系主要以学生之间或师生之间为主;或是租房、求职、商务、旅行或访谈等校园以外的内容,人物关系相对多样。同一次考试之中的两组对话一般会选用不同题材。

(2)命题点多且分散

长对话兼有短对话的特点。短对话中考查的习语与词汇、场景与人物、时间与数字、原因与结果、虚拟与转折等内容同样会在长对话中出现。长对话与短对话相比,信息量增大很多,短对话只针对一处信息点命题,而长对话命题点多且分散。

(3)命题顺序一般与原文一致

长对话一般是按照与原文相符的先后顺序进行命题的。这条命题原则对于考生来讲很重要,因为在听的过程中如能按顺序把某些选项中的关键词适当地“对号入座”,必要时再做一点笔记,就会增加对原文的理解,从而提高该部分的成绩。

2.解题攻略

(1)听到什么选什么原则

长对话部分一般只要听见了某个词语,并且在选项里面也出现了该词语,那么这个选项就极有可能是正确选项。这个原则对考查细节的题目比较实用。对于听不懂或者没有听清楚的词句,可以采用此技巧。

(2)中心内容原则

考生在听对话的时候,要把精力集中在说话人想要通过他的话传达什么样的信息或者阐明什么样的观点,而不是去想什么词没有听见,什么句子没有听懂,永远去关注说话人想说明的主要观点。

抓住这一点,不仅可以应对主旨类试题,还可以应对某些其他类型的试题,因为与短对话相比,长对话涉及的是一个“面”,必然有一个中心议题,中心议题就是该“面”的凝聚点,对话双方都是围绕该中心而展开对话的。因此对于长对话而言,做出正确选择的关键就是把握住对话的主题。

(3)问答原则

长对话中经常出现的问答的形式(即两个人对话时,其中一个人提问,另一个人对所提问的问题进行回答)是题眼。通常,对话中的提问往往成为问题的改写,回答的部分就是需要选的答案,因此考生要留心对话中的问句,学会在一问一答中把握考点。

(4)原因原则

原因在对话中常常会成为考试的焦点。因此,当对话中出现一些表示原因的标志词,如because, for, since, now that, so, consequently, therefore等时,考生要格外注意。

(5)but原则

这个原则非常简单,就是只要出现but,或者其他的转折连词,如however, although等,后面的内容往往就是考点。

(6)解释原则

有时候对话中会出现一些生僻的词或概念,如果这样的词或概念对理解整个对话没有影响,说话人是不会解释的,所以这个时候不需要对它多加注意,但是一旦说话人解释了,就说明它很可能对理解对话内容起到非常重要的作用,这时候,解释的内容就一定要仔细听,这极有可能就是题眼。

(7)建议原则

一般来讲,在对话中只要出现建议,建议就会是考点。实际上,这一原则不仅在长对话中适用,在短对话中往往也是如此,所以只要是建议就要把它记住,而且考生在复习时要尽可能地熟悉各种各样的建议方式。

3.题型分析

长对话部分的常考题型可分为以下三类:

(1)细节识别题(听懂重要的或特定的细节)

长对话中细节题所占的比重最高,一篇长对话中通常会出现4个以上的细节题,有时甚至全为细节题。细节题涉及对话中一些具体的信息,比如人物的身份、年龄、姓名、电话、事情发生的地点、原因等。可能的提问方式如下:

Wheredoes the conversation most probably take place?

Whenwill the show begin?

Howmuch is a child’s ticket?

Howlong does it take the man to…?

Whatgifts can children get from the library this year?

例1:[2012年B类初赛]

Why does the man need to take at least twelve hours?

A. He wants to graduate as soon as possible.

B. He must be a full-time student to qualify for his loan.

C. His advisor insists that he study full time.

【录音原文】

Woman:I see. Well, would you like to drop the class?

Man: Yes, but I also need topick up another class. I have to be a full-time student in order to qualify formy student loan.

Woman:So you need at least twelve hours. And you need afternoon classes.

【解析】男士需要获得助学贷款就必须是全日制学生,得每周修够12小时的课。

例2:[2013年B类初赛]

Whatis the man going to do during the summer?

A. Attendclasses. 

B. Gotraveling. 

C. Take apart-time job.

【录音原文】

W:What are your plans for the summer?

M: I’mgoing to attend summer classes.

W:Summer classes? You’re kidding. Aren’t you burned out by the end of the term?Don’t you need a holiday?

M:Not really. I don’t carry a heavy class load during the year so I can hold downa part-time job. Then I take a summer class or two that I really enjoy.

【解析】对话中女士问男士暑假的计划,男士回答到“I’m going toattend summer classes.”,由此可知男士会参加暑期课程。

例3:[2014年B类决赛]

Howmany text messages are British people sending a month nowadays?

A.Some 0.5 billion.

B.Nearly 1.5 billion.

C.Over 2 billion.

D.About 1 billion.

【录音原文】

M: Butactually texting is an even bigger thing with young people nowadays. About 90percent of them send at least one text massage a day. And if you look at t