[电子书]2018年大学生英语竞赛A类研究生教材讲义全文翻译笔记考试历年真题模拟试题复习题库

2018年大学生英语竞赛A类研究生教材讲义全文翻译笔记考试历年真题模拟试题复习题库
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第一章 听 力

第一节 命题分析

1.考核要求

全国大学生英语竞赛听力部分主要考查考生获取口头信息的能力(理解主旨大意、听懂重要事实和细节、推断隐含的意义、判断言语的交际功能、分辨说话人的观点态度等),要求学生在听完听力材料以后了解内容大意,抓住有关细节,并能进行综合归纳、推理,领会说话人的观点、态度、意图等。

2.试题结构

听力理解部分共30题,共计30分,时间30分钟。A类竞赛主要从四个方面来考查考生的听力理解能力:短对话、长对话、短新闻、笔记填空。

3.试题特点

1)题型的出题方式较为稳定,基本可归纳为四个方面:短对话、长对话、短新闻、笔记填空。

2)英语竞赛听力发音为标准的英音或美音,基本不会涉及方言;语速每分钟150词左右(六级水平左右)。

3)听力内容取材广泛,但不会涉及专业话题,基本为日常生活相关的内容,同时不乏一些社会热点,如埃博拉病毒、欧洲冠军联赛等。

4)听力部分录音均只放一遍(这是A类听力要求高于其他几类竞赛的一点,其他几类听力第四部分听力均放两遍录音)。相对其他题型来说,该部分是考生失分较多的地方。

第二节 技巧指南

为了帮助考生进一步明确所要考查的目标,对听力内容充分分析、概括、总结,并做出正确的推理、判断,最后得出答案,下面分别讲解四种类型考题的特点及解题技巧。

◆短对话

1.试题特点

(1)注重考查逻辑思维

在全国大学生英语竞赛听力对话部分中,能够从对话原文中直接找到答案的题目所占比重较小,而那些要求参赛学生对对话内容进行深刻的逻辑思维,从而判断出对话人的意图、态度或意见要求的题所占比重较大。

(2)对话内容涉及面广

无论是长对话还是短对话,话题基本以衣、食、住、行等日常生活为主。

(3)对话的方式多为一问一答

在短对话听力测试中,对话的方式多为问答式,首先由第一个人提出一个问题,再由第二个人予以回答。或者由第一个人陈述一个观点,第二个人表示附和或反对。问答的回合数一般不会超过三个。

2.解题攻略

短对话作为听力理解部分中较为简单的一类题型,有其特定的解题技巧。

(1)提前快速浏览题目及选项,把握听音重点

考生应充分利用试卷发下到Directions播完的这段时间,迅速浏览试卷上这部分所给的选项,这样在听的时候就能有的放矢地捕捉关键信息,弄清对话环境和意图,最后排除各干扰项,做出正确选择。

例1:[2014年A类决赛]

Howhas the company been affected by the change?

A. Lots of itsfactories have stopped running.

B. Many workershave been forced to retire early.

C. It is goingto close down soon.

D. Very fewworkers will be forced to resign.

【听音重点】题干问公司由于变化受到了什么影响,根据选项中出现的关键词factories,workers,closedown,可以猜出公司由于变化出现了危机,要么是在工厂运行方面的,要么是在员工方面的,并且注意B、D选项均是根据workers设置的选项,注意二者的区分。听录音时应重点注意关于factories,company和workers的描述。

【录音原文】

W:How has the takeover affected the company?

M: A plant inManila and another in Dubai will be closed down. About 300 people are going tolose their jobs. But most of them will be offered jobs in other plants andquite a few want to take early retirement.

W: So there are no compulsory redundancies?

M: Very few.

例2: [2012年A类初赛]

Why is the woman in a good mood?

A. The copier worked and she got the copies.

B. She kicked the copier and now feels better.

C. She had the copier fixed in time.

【听音重点】由题干中的woman以及选项中的copier,可知女士心情好是和copier有关,因此在听音时要注意女士是如何表述和copier相关的内容的。

【录音原文】

W:This stupid thing keeps getting jammed. I can’t get it to make any copies.

M: Soit makes sense you’re in such a good humor.

W: Igave it a good kick and feel better.

(2)注意捕捉说话人的弦外之音

对话部分有很多问题都不是针对讲话人的字面意思发问的,考生必须体会到讲话人的言外之意,才能推断出正确选项。

例1: [2007年A类初赛]

A.Excited.  

B. Annoyed. 

C. Worried.

【录音原文】

A:Look, it’s already 8 o’clock, and Tom said he’d be here by 7.

B:Yes, but you know what the traffic is like at this time of the day.

A:He said he’d make a special effort not to be late. Why does he always do this?

B:Take it easy. There’s probably a reasonable explanation.

A:You mean he’ll give us one of his typical excuses? Well, I’ve had enough of italready.

Q:How does the woman feel about Tom’s being late?

【解析】根据录音中的关键词“always”及“had enough of”,可推测出女士对于Tom迟到这件事很生气。

(3)熟练掌握有关日常生活等方面的词语、习语、句型等

熟悉日常生活中常用的词汇、短语、习语、句型,能使考生听到相关对话时迅速做出反应,提高答题效率和正确率。

例:[2012年A类决赛]

How often does the man play cricket?

A. Seldom. 

B.Frequently. 

C. Never.

【录音原文】

M: Igot a backache from playing cricket.

W: Ididn’t know you played cricket.

M:Well, once in a blue moon.

【解析】在回答这个问题时,男士说到once in a blue moon(极为罕见,千载难逢),可知他很少玩板球。如果知道这个习语,就不难选出正确答案。

3.题型分析

听力短对话试题类型多样,这里主要介绍常涉及的七种题型及针对各题型的答题技巧。

(1)地点与方向(Location and Direction)

地点与方向类试题在对话中经常出现。这类题目根据对话内容,就有关地点提问,要求考生从给出的选项中选出正确答案。这些地点包括对话进行的地点、对话涉及的事件的地点、涉及的人物的地点或人物来自哪里及要去的地点。

考题类型:

①直接型。地点在对话中会直接出现,但提到的地点通常不止一个,考生需要对其进行辨认、选择。A类比赛中直接型出题比较少。

例:[2008年A类样题]

A. At a bank.  

B. At adepartment store. 

C. At a lawyer’soffice.

【录音原文】

W: I juststopped by at your office in the bank. They told me that you had quit. Whereare you working now?

M: I am working for a lawyer now. The pay is better and the work ismuch more interesting.

Q: Where did the man work before?

【解析】从第一句I just stopped by at youroffice in the bank可知男士曾在银行工作过。

②间接型。没有直接提到地点或方向,要求考生根据对话的主题和内容进行推理判断。A类比赛的出题多为间接型。

例1:[2013年A类初赛]

Wheredoes the dialogue probably take place?

A. On atrain. 

B. In arestaurant.  

C. In a gym.

【录音原文】

M: Can I help you?

W: Oh, thank you. Would you mind putting my case on the rack?

M: Not at all. There you are.

【解析】录音中女士问男士“能帮你什么忙吗?”,男士回答说“Would you mind puttingmy case on the rack?”(你介意帮我把箱子放在行李架上吗?),由此可推测出这个对话发生在火车上。

例2:[2013年A类决赛]

Wheredoes this conversation probably take place?

A. In a swimmingpool.

B. In a bank.

C. On a plane.

【录音原文】

M: This is yourpassbook. The interest rate will automatically adjust depending on how much youhave in the account.

W: Oh, that’s good.There’s something else. I’d like to apply for a mortgage, please.

M: Certainly,I’ll make you an appointment with our mortgage adviser.

【解析】根据录音中的关键词和短语passbook(存折)、interest rate(利率)、account(账户)和apply for a mortgage(申请住房贷款)等,可推测对话的发生地点为银行,故答案选B。

答题技巧:

对于直接型考题,考生应先看题目,确定题目所问的对象是男士还是女士,然后再针对对话中的地点进行辨认、选择。

对于间接型考题,考生则应特别注意对话的主题,如在学校时,话题常围绕学习。这类考题所涉及的场所通常有:学校、邮局、图书馆、商店、医院、餐馆、机场、车站、银行等。考生要注意与这些特定场所有关的词语。

常考场景相关词汇总结:

学校用语:

bachelor’sdegree学士学位

master’s degree硕士学位

doctor’s degree 博士学位

graduate ceremony毕业典礼

academic year学年

make-upexamination补考

compulsory/required/obligatorycourse必修课

optional/electivecourse选修课

mid-termexamination期中考试

finalexamination期末考试

register/enroll 注册

campus校园

credit学分

quiz小测验

freshman大一学生

sophomore大二学生

junior大三学生

senior大四学生

postgraduate研究生

seminar研讨会

scholarship奖学金

tuition学费

diploma毕业证书

society学生社团

student union学生会

dormitory宿舍

clinic校医院

major专业

thesis论文

机场、车站用语:

first class头等舱

economy class经济舱

express train快车

direct flight直达航班

internationalflight国际航班

domestic flight 国内航班

behind theschedule晚点/误点

check-inprocedure登机手续

left-luggageoffice行李寄存处

stewardess/airhostess空姐

steward空少

waiting lounge 候机大厅

waiting room候车室

conductor列车长

car attendant列车员

passport护照

visa签证

airliner班机

flight航班

board登机

gate登机口

land着陆

departure起飞

take off起飞

seat belt安全带

银行用语:

current account现金账户

exchange rate汇率

foreign currency外汇

traveler’s check旅游支票

open an account开户

savings account储蓄账户

interest rate利率

installment分期付款

credit card信用卡

passbook存折

withdraw取钱

overdraw透支

cash现金

check支票

deposit存款

loan贷款

teller 出纳

图书馆用语:

loan desk借书处

library card借书卡

reference room参考资料室

reference book参考书

issue(期刊、报纸)期

due(书、作业等)到期应交还的

catalogue目录

current issue现刊

back issue过刊

periodical期刊

fiction/novel小说

index索引

renew续借

overdue超期

pay a fine交罚金

bookshelf书架

餐馆用语:

go Dutch AA制

Chinese food中餐

Western stylefood西餐

soft drink不含酒精的饮料

be full/stuffed吃饱

pay a bill付账

treat sb. tosth.请某人吃某物

rare三分熟的

medium五成熟的

well-done全熟的

appetizer开胃菜

refreshment茶点

cold dish冷盘

dessert甜点

soup汤

tender嫩的

menu菜单

tip小费

buffet自助餐

snack快餐

order点菜

邮局用语:

airmail航空快件

ordinary/regularmail平信

registered mail挂号信

stampscounter/window卖邮票处

ordinarytelegram普通电报

urgent telegram加急电报

express mail快递

special delivery限时专递

overweightcharge超重费

return address 回函地址

sender’s address寄件人地址

package包裹

parcel form包裹单

postage邮资

zip code 邮政编码

remittance汇款

商店用语:

daily necessity日用品

check-out/cashdesk付款台

men’s/women’sdepartment男/女装部

Cash or charge? 付现金还是记账?

bargain讨价还价

one price不还价

fixed prices定价

promotion促销

20% discount off打八折

packing/wrapping包装

on sale甩卖

sold out卖完

in stock有货

out of stock无货

cashier收银员

fashion时尚

医院用语:

blood pressure血压

emergency room急诊

operation room手术室

give aninjection注射

visiting hours探视时间

surgeon外科医生

physician内科医生

traditionalChinese medicine中医

take one’stemperature量体温

dentist牙医

cough咳嗽

flu流感

fever发烧

headache头痛

sneeze打喷嚏

a sore throat 嗓子疼

indigestion消化不良

prescription处方

check-up 体检

ward病房

treat治疗

cure/heal治愈

dose剂量

tablet药片

capsule胶囊

first-aid kit 急救箱

宾馆用语:

room service客房服务

single/doubleroom单/双人间

check in/out 登记入住/付账后离开

reservation预订

reception desk登记处

service counter服务台

duration of stay停留时间

suite套间

inn客栈

full up客满

vacancy空房

理发店用语:

hairdresser美发师

blow the hair吹头发

haircut理发

hairstyle发型

beard胡须

mustache髭

curly卷发的

bob剪短

shave刮胡子

cut剪发

海关用语:

allowance限额

go through thecustoms通关

declare申报

duty free免税的

visa签证

办公室用语:

vacancy空缺

appointment预约

candidate求职者

job applicant求职者

fire/dismiss解雇

employer老板

employee雇员

resume简历

scanner扫描仪

printer打印机

fax传真

file文件

copier复印机

schedule时间表

法庭用语:

jury陪审团

accuse控诉

My Lord/YourHonor 法官大人

guilty有罪的

innocent清白的

crime犯罪

witness证人

(2)时间与数字(Time and Numerals)

时间与数字类的题目包括直接型和隐含型。

考题类型:

①直接型。该类考题不需要计算,答案直接出现在对话的多个数字中,要求考生根据题目从所给选项中直接辨认出答案。主要考查考生对数字的辨认及记忆能力。A类竞赛中直接型的题目比较少。

例:[2007年A类初赛]

A. £ 78. 

B. £ 39. 

C. £ 36.

【录音原文】

A:Good morning. Do you have any tickets left for this evening’s performance?

B:Let me just have a look. Well, there’re a few seats left in the front stalls.How many tickets do you want?

A:Just two.

B:Yes, I can give you two in the third row. They are 39 pounds each.

A:39 pounds! I see. All right, I’ll take them.

B:That’s 78 pounds altogether. You can come to pick them up by 6:30.

Q: What’s thetotal cost of the tickets?

【解析】录音中提到要买2张票,而每张票39 pounds,总共78 pounds。

②隐含型。选项中的时间或数字不会直接出现在对话里,有时需进行简单的计算。

例:[2013年A类初赛]

How much did Google approximately earn in the same period lastyear?

A. $2 bn

B. $2.2 bn

C. $2.5 bn

【录音原文】

Google had intended to release its earnings report afterthe close of trading, but the report was put out early by mistake. It showedthat Google’s earnings fell by around 20% in the third-quarter when compared tothe same period a year ago, to just over $2 bn. Google’s share price immediatelybegan to fall until trading was halted. Analysts said that the cost related tothe acquisition of Motorola and the strong dollar had contributed to the fallin earnings.

【解析】这则新闻是讲Google因为差错提前发布了它的收益报告表。其中显示Google第三个季度的收益只下降到是二十亿美元多,与去年同期相比下降了20%左右,由此可知去年同期Google的收益为超过$2 bn×(1+20%)=$2.4 bn,即接近$2.5 bn。

答题技巧:

对于直接型考题,考生需要根据题目和对话内容在给出的选项数字中进行选择,因此考生可以在听力开始前利用短暂的间隙浏览题目,查看题目所提问的对象,之后在听对话内容时将该对象所对应的数字记录下来。

对于隐含型考题,该类考题的答案有时需要进行简单的计算,如将数字进行加减等。这要求考生在听对话时需将对话中出现的所有数字和其对应的对象记下来,以便根据题目中要求回答的对象进行计算。

①对于时间题,要注意以下几点:

a. 时间、日期和年代的读法

“-teen”和“-ty”是众多考生容易混淆的,应该注意区分。主要区别为:第一,重音不同。前者重音在词末,而后者重音在词首。第二,是否有鼻音。结尾发音有鼻音/n/的单词为“-teen”。如:fourteen和forty, thirteen和thirty等。

b. 时间

5:12 fivetwelve/twelve past five

7:15seven fifteen/a quarter past seven (after seven)

8:45eight forty-five/ a quarter to nine

11:50eleven fifty/ ten to twelve

2:00pm/14:00 two pm/ fourteen hundred hours

12:00twelve/ noon/ midday

24:00midnight

c. 日期与年代

3月15日 March 15th/ the 15th of March

每隔一天(每两天)every other day/ every two days

几天前the other day /a few days ago

两星期fortnight/ period of two weeks

20世纪 the twentieth century

19世纪40年代 in the eighteen forties

公元前450年(450BC)four hundred and fifty BC/fourfifty BC

②对于数字题,要注意以下表达方式(相同意义的不同表达):

a. 多位数的表达

10ten/ a decade 

12twelve/ a dozen 

1960nineteen sixty

1900nineteen hundred

b. 分数与小数

分数:分子用基数表示,分母用序数表示

1/2 (0.5)one half (zero point five)

1/4 (0.25)one fourth/ a quarter (zero point twenty five)

c. 号码、货币

电话号码按位数逐个读出来87316789

房间号码、邮政编码、街道等:180 one-eighty/ one-eight-zero

注意数量单位与单位基数的不同。如:a penny=one cent, a nickel=five cents, a quarter=twenty-five cents,a half dollar=fifty cents.

③注意数字换算

掌握听力课堂中所列的与数字相关的表达方式。由于每个对话间隔的时间短,既要回忆对话内容,又要阅读选择项,还要进行计算,因此熟练掌握换算进率是十分必要的。

星期、日期、时、分的换算进率分别为7、30/31、24、60等。

Aquarter 指时间是15分钟,指月份是一季度(三个月),指百分比为25%。

(3)身份与关系(Identity and Relationship)

对话中身份与关系类题是指根据对话内容就与对话有关人物的职业、身份或人物之间的关系提问,要求参赛学生从所给选项中选出一个正确答案的题型。

该类考题包括考查职业身份和考查二者关系两种,其提问角度主要有以下四种:

1)就对话人某一方的职业身份提问。

Whatis the woman’s job?

2)就对话人之间的关系提问。

What’sthe relationship between the man and the woman?

3)就对话中涉及的第三者的职业、身份提问。

Whatdo you think is Mary’s profession?

4)就对话中涉及的第三者与第四者之间的关系提问。

Whatis the relationship between Tom and Jerry?

考题类型:

①考查职业身份

这类题涉及的职业主要有教师、学生、图书管理员、医生/牙医、营业员、服务员、修理工、家庭主妇等。

例1:[2014年A类样题]

Whatdoes Peter do?

A. Astudent. 

B.A teacher.

C. Aheadmaster. 

D. Anassistant.

【录音原文】

W:Peter, I’ve got your letter here requesting leave.

M:Yes, I’m still owed two and a half days and I’ve got an exam next week I mustprepare for.

W:You can’t just take leave whenever you want it. You know we’re very busy nextweek and we’ll need you to teach.

【解析】题目问的是:Peter是做什么的?录音中听到女士在看到男士的假条后说“Youcan’t just take leave whenever you want it. You know we’re very busy next weekand we’ll need you to teach.”,由teach一词可推出Peter应该是老师。

②考查二者之间关系

这类题涉及的二者关系主要有:教师与学生、医生与病人、丈夫与妻子、借书者与馆员、旅客与服务员、老板与雇员、修理工与顾客等。

例:[2008年A类样题]

A.Policeman and driver.

B. Teacher andpupil.

C. Driver andactress.

【录音原文】

M: Why didn’tyou stop when we first signaled?

W: I’m sorry. Will I have to pay a fine?

Q: What’s theprobable relationship between the man and woman?

【解析】从stop,firstsignaled以及pay afine等关键词,可知两人是警察与司机的关系。

答题技巧:

①如选项为关于职业、身份及关系方面的词汇,可断定该题属于身份与关系类对话。

②对话中一般不会直接提及人物的身份与关系,需要通过对话中的预期及关键词来进行判断。因此,考生应该掌握与特定语言环境及表示人物身份职业相关的词汇,并在做题时注意捕捉与人物职业身份相关的关键词。

③应该注意对话人的语气。不同关系的人物对话,其语气特征会比较明显。如夫妻、恋人之间常用比较亲昵的语气;同学、朋友之间常用比较随意的语气;而下属对老板则常用比较恭敬的语气。注意体会说话者的口气、语调及所用的称呼,这将有助于判断对话者之间的关系。如:

Dr. 是学生对老师或病人对医生的称呼

Mr., Mrs.反映下级对上级或学生对老师的称呼

Prof.用于对教授的称呼

Darling用于夫妻之间

常考身份与关系相关词汇总结如下:

职业身份

Postman(邮递员):

deliver, letter, parcel, mail, post, airmail, registered letter,postcard, mailbox, postage

Repairman(修理工):

fix, plug, gear, garage, vacuum, air-conditioner, heater,refrigerator, washing machine, drain, microwave, switch, plumber

somethingis wrong with…

Police(警察):

speeding, traffic light, driver’s license, fine, give a ticket to

Taxi-driver(出租车司机):

fare, meter, get off, change, tip, destination

Whereshall I take you?

Whereto?

Custom officer(报关员):

passport, restricted articles, free of duty

Doyou have anything to declare?

Anythingdutiable?

Librarian(图书管理员):

borrow, library card, periodical, journal, catalogue, book shelf,due, overdue, renew

Bank Clerk(银行职员):

balance, cash, check, an open account, interest, overdraft,withdraw, deposit

两者关系

Doctors and Patients(医生和病人):

examination, prescribe, injection, operation, fever, cough,headache, diagnose, medicine, flu, surgery, be operated on, indigestion

What’sthe matter with you?

What’swrong (with you)?

Isuffered…

Teachers and Students(教师和学生):

textbook, course, grade, mark, exam, term paper, test, assignment,homework, lesson, class score, scholarship, pass, fail, semester, credit, oralexam, written exam, make up an exam, school record, tuition, drop out

Customer and Waiter/Waitress(顾客和服务生):

shop-assistant, attendant menu, order, tip, on sale, for sale,marked price, discount, selling season, shopping record, treat, go Dutch,steak, ham, out of style, in fashion, all the rage, in good taste

Whatcan I do for you?

May Ihelp you?

May Itake your order now?

Wouldyou like something else?

Willthis be cash or charge/check/cheque?

Airport Staff andCustomer(机场人员和乘客):

cabin door, gate, business class, economy class, first class,restricted articles, single ticket, return ticket, difference in time, airsick,seat belt fasten, take off, board, land

礼貌用语:Hi!Please! How do you do? How are you? Hello!

Boss and secretary(老板和秘书):

typing,operating, copy, file, document, report, telephone, appointment, timetable,arrangement

(4)态度与建议(Attitude and Suggestion)

考生需根据对话内容的关键词、上下文甚至语气、语调的内涵意义并利用逻辑思维能力进行判断,找出对话中人物对某事件或某人的观点态度。

常见的提问方式:

Howdoes the man/woman feel about?

Whatdoes the man/woman think of...?

Whatdoes the man/woman mean?

Whatdoes the man/woman say about...?

例1:[2012年A类决赛]

Whatdoes the man think of David?

A. He thinksDavid is the best candidate.

B. He doesn’tthink David has a strong personality.

C. He doesn’tthink David is ideal for the project.

【录音原文】

M:David is of a similar age to the other contestants. He’s an unemployedmusician, he likes discussions and he’s got something different tooffer. 

W: So do youthink he’ll fit in the project?

M: Well, I doubtwhether we want people with too strong personalities.

【解析】在回答David是否适合这项任务时,男士提到I doubt whether wewant people with too strong personalities可知,他认为David个性太强,所以并不是合适的人选。故选C。

例2:[2007年A类初赛]

A. It will befine. 

B. It will betoo long. 

C. It will beboring.

【录音原文】

A:I must admit that I’m not really looking forward to it.

B:No?

A: Well, I’ve been to their parties before, and Idon’t suppose this one will be any better. All the same people are going on andon about their jobs.

B:Aha.

A:They all think they are so important. Honestly, I just can’t be bothered withthem. I never know what to say. Still I’ve been invited, so I suppose I’dbetter go.

B:Eh.

Q: What does theman think the party will be like?

【解析】由第一句话可知他并不期待这次的聚会,因为聚会上的人对他们的工作谈论不休,并自以为是,男士在这样的聚会上无话可说,所以他认为这次的聚会将很无聊。

答题技巧:

①答案通常与后者的话有关,选项中有关第一说话人的话通常不是正确答案。

第一人态度为肯定时,第二人的回答有:

支持:yes,sure, of course, that’s a good idea, out of question...

反对:no,not really, not likely, not at all, no way, out of the question...

第一人态度为否定时,第二人的回答有:

支持:no,of course not, you don’t

反对:yes,of course, you do

②看清问题,找准听音重点。

观点态度类试题主要是判断对话中说话人对所谈及的事或人所持的观点及态度。考生做这类试题时要注意理解对话中的大意,并且还要注意问题中考查的是男士还是女士的观点,以免判断错误。

③这里要注意几种关于态度的表达方式:

a. 双重否定表肯定

notimpossible, can’t agree... any more, not unusual等

b. 部分否定的词

not all…(或:all…not), not every(或:every…not), not always等

c. 虚拟语气表假设,非真实情况

If it weren’tfor…, It hadn’t been for…, but for, supposing等。

④熟练掌握表示建议的常用句式:

Whynot…?

Whydon’t you/we…?

Howabout…?

You’dbetter…

Youmay/might as well…

If Iwere you, I would…

I’drather you…

(5)行为与计划(Action and Plan)

行为与计划类题目的选项常以to + V(或不带to的不定式)短语形式、V-ing短语形式或V-ed短语形式出现。对话中常会出现一个或几个动作,要求考生根据对话的内容,迅速记忆提及的动作及相关信息、动作发生的前后顺序以及动作与动作发出者的对应关系等。

该类试题要求考生对对话的主题及题目中说话人的行为进行判断,主要的提问方式有:

Whatdoes the man want to do?

Whatis the man planning to do?

Whatis the man going to do?

Whatare the two speakers talking about?

①考查过去的行为

例:[2012年A类初赛]

Whatdid the woman do last night?

A. Watched TV.  

B. Went tothe circus.  

C. Practicedjuggling.

【录音原文】

M: Did you have fun lastnight?

W: Tobe frank, I’ve seen better things on television. I didn’t like seeing largeanimals performing tricks, and the jugglers weren’t as skillful as I thoughtthey’d be.

M: Sounds like a waste ofmoney, then.

【解析】女士说不喜欢看large animals杂耍和jugglers变戏法,反而还不如电视节目精彩,而男士也认为她的做法浪费了金钱。所以她昨晚去了马戏团看表演。

②考查将来的行为

例:[2011年A类初赛]

Whatwill the woman do next?

A. Visit the petmotel.

B. Write areview.     

C. Look forsome information.

【录音原文】

W:What should we do about the animals while we’re on vacation?

M: I wasthinking of asking our neighbor, Bob, to take them in. But, we’ve got threecats and a dog. It’s really a lot to ask.

W: Yeah, it is.You know, there’s a pet motel on Woodland Avenue. I’ll go online and look forreviews about the place.

【解析】女士说I’ll go online and look for reviews,可知她要去找和pet motel有关的信息,因此选C。

③考查现在的行为

例:[2009年A类初赛]

Whatis the patient suffering from?

A. A throatinfection.

B. A skininfection.

C. A seriouscut.

【录音原文】

M: Ifyou’ll just have a seat, Ms. Thomas, I’ll look into your mouth. Open wide! Em,still a bit red and swollen. Have you been taking the tablets I prescribed andcut down on the cigarettes?

W: Yes, doctor. It’s actually not half as sore as it was.

M: Em, yes. Yourvoice sounds better as well. Just take the tablets for a few more days andwe’ll have another look then.

【解析】医生检查时让病人张开口,医生还提到病人的声音听起来好多了,可推断病人得的是喉咙感染。

答题技巧:

听对话时要对与动作有关的内容特别注意,抓住表示时间顺序的词语,如since,before, after, then等,还要特别注意对话中所使用的时态和重复出现的词,这些往往是答题的关键。

(6)因果(Cause and Effect)

此类题型较难,因为原因的阐述通常会出现在第一句,容易被忽视,且该类题信号词较少,需听完完整对话后才能明白其内容重点。

常见的提问方式:

Whycan’t sb. do sth. ?

Whyis sb. ...?

Whydoes sb. ...?

例1:[2009年A类初赛]

Whyis the man late?

A.The trains were delayed.

B. Hecouldn’t find a bus stop.

C.Something went wrong with his friend’s motorbike.

【录音原文】

M:Sorry, I’m late. Did you hear about the trains?

W:Yes, I heard they were running late.

M:Well, I realized I might be late, so I tried to find a bus and on my way Ibumped into Jerry. He offered me a lift on his motorbike. But unfortunately, itwas exhausted by flameout, so in the end, I had to walk.

【解析】对话中提到男士已知道火车会晚点,为避免迟到已作出安排。男士迟到的原因是在搭乘朋友便车的时候,朋友的车总是flameout(熄火),只能步行上班。所以,正确答案应为C项。

例2:[2013年A类初赛]

Whydid the man get divorced according to the woman?

  A. He was bad-temperedall the time.

  B. He didn’t helptake care of the baby.

C. He spent toomuch time in the pub.

【录音原文】

M: It was all my fault. I wish I hadn’t been so thoughtless. I usedto come back late from work, after stopping off at the pub on the way home, anddidn’t lift a finger to help when I did get home. I should’ve helped more withthe baby and things like that.

W: Well yes, the main thing if you ask me is that you shouldn’t havetaken on that new job in London when she’d just had a baby.

M: Now I’m adivorced idiot.

【解析】录音中男士向女士讲述了自己犯的一些错误导致了离婚,而女士认为主要原因是“在她刚生孩子的时候,你本不应该接受那份新工作”。由此可知女士认为他没有照顾孩子是离婚的原因,即B项。

例3:[2014年A类初赛]

Whydid the man move?

A. He neededa larger building.

B. He wanted anenvironmental-friendly place for business.

C. He wanted tolive downtown.

D. He neededconvenient transportation.

【录音原文】

W: Have youalways been on this site?

M: No, we usedto be on an industrial estate on the outskirts of York.

W: Why did youmove?

M: We neededlarger premises so we moved to this greenfield site last year.

【解析】对话中女士问及男士搬家的原因,根据其回答“We needed larger premises so we moved to this greenfield site lastyear”,可知男士想要更大的经营场所,所以进行了搬迁。premises房屋;经营场所。

答题技巧:

①注意听清第二个人的讲话内容,尤其是当第二个对话人使用I’d like to..., but...句式时,but之后就是具体原因。

②熟悉一些表示因果关系的词和短语,在听录音时要特别注意以下词或短语之后的内容:

words: because, as, for , since, in that, hence, therefore,consequently, cause, reason

expressions:due to, owing to, because of, thanks to, on account for, as a result, resultfrom, result in, lead to, give rise to, contribute to, attribute to, now that,so that, so…that, such…that, in order to, be responsible for

(7)气候与天气

谈论天气的人一般是朋友或家庭成员,内容涉及气候、温度、环境及天气对人们生活和出行的影响。

解答该类题型要注意关于气候与天气的相关词汇及短语:

climate,forecast, get worse, sunny, bright, warm (up), cloudy, overcast, gloomy, windy,foggy, rain, snow, snow storm, etc.

冷暖:temperature,hot, cold, such a severe winter, etc.

(8)主题(Subject)

该类题目要求考生根据对话中的内容判断他们讨论的主题是什么。

常见提问方式为:

Whatare they/the two speakers talking about?

Whatdo we learn from the conversation?

...

例1:[2014年A类决赛]

Whatdo we learn from the conversation?

A. Landfillis now the main approach to waste disposal.

B. The man’sfactory has begun to burn its waste.

C. Burning wastewill do more harm to the environment.

D. Thegovernment is going to stop the use of landfill.

【录音原文】

W:How do you dispose of the waste in your factory?

M: We have to send it to landfill. It’s very expensive because thegovernment recently introduced a landfill tax so we’re planning to build a newincineration plant next year to burn our waste.

W: But doesn’tburning waste produce carbon monoxide?

M: Yes, it does.But we believe it’s less harmful to the environment than landfill.

【解析】当被问及如何处理工厂垃圾时,男士指出“We have tosend it to landfill”,并提到最近政府引入了垃圾掩埋税,进行垃圾填埋很昂贵,因此他们考虑在下一年建造焚烧车间。对于女士关于焚烧垃圾产生二氧化碳的质疑,男士回答说“But we believe it’s less harmful to the environment than landfill”,可见只有A项符合录音内容。

例2:[2012年A类初赛]

Whatare the speakers talking about?

A. Aphoto. 

B.Colors.

C. Apainting.

【录音原文】

M:What do you think of this one?

W: To be honest, it’s not really my taste. I’m not really into thisstyle of portrait. And it sort of looks like a photo to me.

M: Ilike the colors, and the expression on her face is kind of intense.

【解析】从女士的评价I’m not really into this style of portrait, photo以及男士的colors可知对话是在讨论一幅画。

答题技巧:

主题型试题主要考查学生对短对话的主要内容的把握能力。考生需要抓住关键字或主题句,根据所获得的关键信息,来分析概括主题。

注意不要只从对话一方的话语中寻找答案。由于是考查谈话主题,因此双方的话语中应都含有与主题相关的线索词。

◆长对话

1.试题特点

(1)取材广泛

长对话的题材涉及十分广泛,如选课、考试、借书、打工、社团活动等大学校园内发生的与学习、生活及娱乐有关的内容,人物关系主要以学生之间或师生之间为主;或是租房、求职、商务、旅行或访谈等校园以外的内容,人物关系相对多样。同一次考试之中的两组对话一般会选用不同题材。

(2)命题点多且分散

长对话与短对话有类似之处。短对话中考查的习语与词汇、场景与人物、时间与数字、原因与结果、虚拟与转折等内容同样会在长对话中出现。长对话与短对话相比,信息量增大很多,短对话只针对一处信息点命题,而长对话命题点多且分散。

(3)命题顺序一般与原文一致

长对话一般是按照与原文相符的先后顺序进行命题的。这条命题原则对于考生来讲很重要,因为在听的过程中如能按顺序把某些选项中的关键词适当地“对号入座”,必要时再做一些笔记,就会增加对原文的理解程度,从而提高该部分的成绩。

2.解题攻略

(1)听到什么选什么原则

长对话部分一般只要听见了某个词语,并且在选项里面也出现了该词语,那么这个选项就极有可能是正确选项。这个原则对考查细节的题目比较实用。对于听不懂或者没有听清楚的词句,可以采用此技巧。

(2)中心内容原则

考生在听对话的时候,要把精力集中在说话人想要通过他的话传达什么样的信息或者阐明什么样的观点上,而不是去想什么词没有听见,什么句子没有听懂。永远去关注说话人想说明的主要观点。

抓住这一点,不仅可以应对主旨类试题,还可以应对某些其他类型的试题,因为与短对话相比,长对话涉及的是一个“面”,必然有一个中心议题,中心议题就是该“面”的凝聚点,对话双方都是围绕该中心而展开对话的。因此对于长对话而言,做出正确选择的关键就是把握住对话的主题。

(3)问答原则

长对话中经常出现的问答的形式(即两个人对话时,其中一个人提问,另一个人对所提问的问题进行回答)是题眼。通常,对话中的提问往往成为问题的改写,回答的部分就是需要选的答案,因此考生要留心对话中的问句,学会在一问一答中把握考点。

(4)原因原则

原因在对话中常常会成为考试的焦点。因此,当对话中出现一些表示原因的标志词,如because, for, since, now that, so, consequently, therefore等时,考生要格外注意。

(5)but原则

这个原则非常简单,就是只要出现but,或者其他的转折连词,如however, although等,后面的内容往往就是考点。

(6)解释原则

有时候对话中会出现一些生僻的词或概念,如果这样的词或概念对理解整个对话没有影响,说话人是不会解释的,所以这个时候不需要对它多加注意,但是一旦说话人解释了,就说明它很可能对理解对话内容起到非常重要的作用,这时候,解释的内容就一定要仔细听,这极有可能就是题眼。

(7)建议原则

一般来讲,在对话中只要出现建议,建议就会是考点。实际上,这一原则不仅在长对话中适用,在短对话中往往也是如此,所以只要是建议就要把它记住,而且考生在复习时要尽可能地熟悉各种各样的建议方式。

3.题型分析

长对话部分的常考题型可分为以下三类:

(1)细节识别题(听懂重要的或特定的细节)

长对话中细节题所占的比重最高,一篇长对话中通常会出现4个以上的细节题,有时甚至全为细节题。细节题涉及对话中一些具体的信息,比如人物的身份、年龄、姓名、电话、事情发生的地点、原因等。可能的提问方式如下:

Wheredoes the conversation most probably take place?

Whenwill the show begin?

Howmuch is a child’s ticket?

Howlong does it take the man to…?

Whatgifts can children get from the library this year?

例1:[2011年A类初赛]

Whattime is Mike’s wife’s appointment?

A. At 2:00pm. 

B. At 2:30pm. 

C. At 3:30 pm.

【录音原文】

Mike:This is Mike speaking. I’d like to make an appointment for my wife. She wants to come in at the end of the week.

Receptionist: How about thisFriday morning? That’s Friday the 21st.

Mike: Mmm, I don’t think shecan make the morning. Any openings in the afternoon?

Receptionist: Yes.Appointments are available at 2:00, 2:30 and 3:30.

Mike: We’ll take the firstone, please.

【解析】前台接待员说 “Appointments are available at 2:00, 2:30 and 3:30”,之后男士选了第一个,故选A。

例2:[2014年A类初赛]

Whatis the earliest record of alcohol about?

A. It is justmeaningless graffiti randomly drawn.

B. It is abouthow the earliest alcohol was produced.

C. It is thecomplaint about people adding water to the beer.

D. It is abouthow ancient people drank alcohol.

【录音原文】

W:Has alcohol always been a part of people’s lives?

M:Alcohol has been with us for thousands of years and must be nearly as old ascivilization itself. The earliest piece of graffiti ever found, on a wall inancient Sumeria, complained that the beer was being watered down. In mostsocieties, it is an integral part of celebrations and social gatherings.

【解析】题干问及关于酒的最早记录与什么相关,对话开头男士提到“The earliest piece of graffiti ever found, on a wall in ancientSumeria, complained that the beer was being watered down”,即在古苏美尔的一面墙上,对啤酒被兑水的抱怨,故答案选C。

(2)推理判断题(推论隐含的意义)

推理试题的难度相对比较大,主要的提问方式有:

Whatcan you infer from the conversation?

Whatmight be the man’s attitude toward…?

Whatdoes the man think about…?

长对话部分对推理判断题的考查不是很多,该类试题主要考查考生的推理判断能力,考生应根据自己对对话内容的理解找出与对话意义相符的选择项,而不仅仅以词句是否与材料中听到的词句完全和部分相同而定。对于没有听懂的句子,可以根据已经获得的部分信息以及自己具备的一般常识来判断可能性较大的选项。

例1:[2011年A类初赛]

Whatis the most probable relationship between the two speakers?

A.Travel agent and customer.

B.Professor and student.

C.Classmates.

【录音原文】

John:I know. I was hoping that they’d stay at 3,000 words or on