[电子书]西南政法大学外语学院705基础英语历年考研真题汇编

[电子书] 西南政法大学外语学院705基础英语历年考研真题汇编

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2009年西南政法大学外语学院705基础英语考研真题

2008年西南政法大学外语学院705基础英语考研真题

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试读(部分内容)

2009年西南政法大学外语学院705基础英语考研真题

学科专业:外国语言学及应用语言学

考试科目:基础英语(150)

I. Replace the italicized words with simple,everyday words (10 marks, 1 mark each)

1. and of would-be purchasers arguing and bargaining(   )

2. where thousands upon thousands of people had been slain in one second. ( )

3. He insisted that man drop his religious illusion(   )

4. and thus beguile ourselves for an hour or so after dinner(   )

5. Darkness falls,and there is nothing but the intermittent gleam of a lighthouse on a solitary promontory(  )

6 .and saved the world from the catastrophe(   )

7. I see that small group of villainous men,who plan,organize(   )

8. They have completely transformed our cumulative ability to exploit the earth for sustenance.(  )

9. But one doesn’t have to travel around the world to witness humankinds assault on the earth(  )

10. My research for the underlying causes of the environmental crisis has led me to travel around the word to examine and study many of these images of destruction.(   )

II. Vocabulary and structure (20 marks, 1 mark each) 

11. The food was divided ______ according to the age and size of the children.

【A】equally   【B】proportionately【C】sufficiently   【D】adequately

12. Nowadays a large number of people buy _____ Christmas trees instead of real ones.

【A】false   【B】fake  【C】sham   【D】artificial

13. You need to rewrite this sentence because it is_________; the readers will have difficulty in understanding it.

【A】comprehensive【B】alternative【C】sufficiently   【D】ambiguous

14. I was ________ by their kindness and moved to tears

【A】preoccupied 【B】embarrassed【C】counseled 【D】overwhelmed

15. To the waiter’s relief, the plate was left ______ after being dropped on to the floor.

【A】unchanged【B】intact【C】unharmful   【D】complete

16.The sociologist responded to the charge that her new theory was______by pointing out that it did not in fact contradict accepted sociological principles。

【A】concealed 【B】complex【C】superficial 【D】hereditary

17.Industrialists seized economic power only after industry had________griculture as the preeminent form of production。

【A】joined【B】accepted【C】seen    【D】surpassed

18.Our plan should be________in accordance with the altered circumstances。

【A】whirled 【B】stroked 【C】modified 【D】distracted

19.Competition,they believe,_________the national character rather than corrupt it。

【a】enforces 【b】confirms【c】intensifies【d】strengths

20. Why should anyone want to read______of books by great authors when the real pleasure comes from reading the originals?

【a】themes【b】insights【c】digests【d】leaflets

21. Rightist Christian leaders called for the ________of Lebanon into Moslem and Christian states。

【a】participant【b】particle【c】partition【d】participation

22. The female swimming________against the currents won honor for our country in the 24th Olympic Games

【a】striving【b】rescuing 【c】defending【d】hindering

23. An important property of a scientific theory is its ability to________further research and further thinking about a particular topic

【a】stimulate【b】renovate【c】arouse 【d】advocate

24. Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find________difficult to succeed in language learning。

【a】that【b】it【c】which【d】what

25. _________man can now create radioactive elements,there is nothing he can do to replace their radioactivity。

【a】as 【b】whether 【c】while 【d】now that

26. JohnD Rockefeller,_________owned 90 percent of all American oil refineries。

【a】  as still a young man 【b】a young man however

【c】while still a Young man 【d】in spite of a young man

27. If you want to phone him,you will have to________the number in the book first

【a】look through 【b】look up 【c】look forward to 【d】look down upon

28. While walking along the icy River , we could see cracks in the ice _______in all directions

【a】splitting 【b】radiating【c】transmitting 【d】transferring

29. Although he has_______many good things during his term as president,he should be forced to give up some of his Powers

【a】accomplished 【b】completed 【c】finished 【d】achieved

30. ___________always exists between the theoretical deduction and the result of experimentation

【a】 Deviation 【b】Derivation 【c】Variation【d】Variety

III.  Reading Comprehension(30marks,1.5marks each)

Passage One

Why should anyone buy the latest volume in ever-expanding Dictionary of National Biography?I do not mean that  it is bad,as the reviewers will agree. But it will cost you 65pounds.And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22plus the largely decennial supplement to bring the total to31.Of course, it will be answered, public and academic libraries want the new volume. After all, it adds 1068 lives of people who escaped the net of the original compilers, yet in 10 years’ time a revised version of the whole caboodle,called the New Dictionary of National Biography,will be published. Its editor, Professor Colin Matthew, tells me that he will have room for about 50,000lives,some 13.000more than in the current DNB. This rather puts the 1,068 in Missing Persons in the shade.

When Dr. Nicholls wrote to The Spectator in 1989 asking for names of people whom readers had looked up in the DNB and had been disappointed not to find,she says that she received some 100,000suggestions.(Well ,she had written to “other quality newspapers”too)  As soon as her committee had whittled the numbers down ,the professional problems of an editor began. Contributions didn’t file copy on time ; some who did send too much: 50,000words instead of 500is a record ,according to Dr Nieholls.

There remains is the dinner-party games of who’s in, who’s out. That is a games that the reviewers have played and will continue to play . Criminals were my initial worry. After all, the original  edition of the DNB boasted: Malefactor whose crimes excite a permanent interest have received hardly less attention than benefactor. Mr. John Gros clearly had similar anxiety ,for he complaints that, while the murdered Christie is in, Crippen is out. One might say in reply that the injustice of the hanging of Evans instead of Christie was a force in the repeal of capital punishment in Britain, as Ludivie Kennedy (the author of Christies entry in Missing Persons) note. But then Crippen was reputed as the first murders to be caught by telegraph(he had tired to escape by ship to America)

It is surprising to find Max Miller excluded when really not very memorable names get in。There has been a conscious effort to put in artists and architects from the Middle Ages. About their lives not much is always known.

Of Hugo of Bury St. Edmunds, a 12th century illuminator whose dates of birth and death are not recorded, his biographer comments: “Whether or not Hugo was a wall-painter, the records of his activities as carver and manuscript painter attest to his versatility.” Then there had to be more women, too (12 percent, against the original DBN’s 3), such as Roy Strong’s subject, the Tudor painter Levina Teerlinc of whom he remarks: “Her most characteristic feature is a head attached to a too small, spindly body. Her technique remained awkward, thin and often cursory.” Doesn’t seem to qualify her as a memorable artist. Yet it may be better than the record of the original DNB, which included lives of people who never existed (such as Merlin) and even managed to give thanks to J. W. Clerke as a contributor, though, as a later edition admits in a shamefaced footnote, “except for the entry in the List of Contributors there is no trace of J.W.Clerke.”

   31. The writer suggests that there is no sense in buying the latest volume

  [A] because it is not worth the price.

  [B] because it has fewer entries than before.

  [C] unless one has all the volumes in his collection.

  [D] unless an expanded DNB will come out shortly.

32. On the issue of who should be included in the DNB, the writer seems to suggest that

  [A] the editors had clear rules to follow.

  [B] there were too many criminals in the entries.

  [C] the editors clearly favoured benefactors.

  [D] the editors were irrational in their choices.

33.Crippen was absent from the DNB

  [A] because he escaped to the United States.

  [B] because death sentence had been abolished.

  [C] for reasons not clarified.

  [D] because of the editors’ mistake.

34. The author quoted a few entries in the last paragraph to

  [A] illustrate some features of the DNB.

  [B] give emphasis to his argument.

  [C] impress the reader with its content.

  [D] highlight the people in the Middle Ages.

35. Throughout the passage, the writer’s tone towards the DNB was

  [A] complimentary.

  [B] supportive.

  [C] sarcastic.

[D] bitter.

   Passage 2

Directions: There are 5 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Circle the one that best completes the sentence.

For every generation before ours, the first concerns were: Can I grow old? Will my baby reach a ripe old age? Please let us grow older! Now the average life expectancy in the US has advanced from 47 in 1900 to better than 76 in 1999. During the next century, new biological discoveries should ensure that even more of us will live to see old age and will encourage us to dream, in wild or wistful moments, that we might not have to grow old at all.

Whenever I want to feel optimistic, I think about work in progress in the laboratory of Seymour Benzer of the California Institute of Technology. Benzer made the first detailed map of a gene’s interior, and his student Ronald Konopka discovered that first so-called clock gene, which ticks away inside virtually every living cell, helping tell our bodies where we are in the daily sweep from morning to night. Now, at 77, Benzer is searching through our genes for a sort of clock of clocks that tells us where we are in the sweep from the cradle to the grave and decides how fast we age. Recently he discovered a mutant fruit fly that lives more than 100 days, about one-third longer than the rest of the madding crowd in a fly bottle. What makes the difference is a single gene, which Benzer calls Methuselah.

If one gene can do that much for flies, then what can our genes for us? Maybe there really is a clock of clocks, and maybe, just maybe, 21st century biologists will figure out bow to twiddle and reset the hands.

We are already doing better at preventive medicine and at repairing old bodies---dealing with abdominal fat, atherosclerosis, blood pressure, blood sugar, cataracts and so on. In the next century, molecular biologists are likely to tinker with more and more of our genetic machinery, in what may be either mankind’s worst folly or the most significant software upgrade of the 21st century.

Of course, on this question of old age, science is still a baby. There are plenty of biologists who believe that aging and death are as inevitable as taxes. No one really knows if human longevity will come up against a fixed barrier somewhere or if ,like the sound barrier, it is there only to be broken. Some gerontologists say the limit of the average life span is 85 years; others, 95, 100, 150 and beyond. No one understands the economic barriers either. Ronald Lee, a demographer at the University of California, Berkeley, calculates that for each year we add to the average life span, the economy will have to grow 1% to pay for our care.

36. In the past century the average life expectancy in the US_________.

  [A] has advanced 47

  [B] has advanced to 76

  [C] has increased a good 29 years

  [D] has increased nearly 30 years

37. the phrase “from the cradle to the grave”(Para.2)probably means_______.

    [A] from the kindergarten to the university

  [B] from the childhood to the old age

  [C] from one’s birth to death

 [D] from one’s family to the society

38.According to the text, Methuselah is ________.

  [A] the name of a mutant fruit fly

  [B] the madding crowd in a fly bottle

  [C] the name of a kind of gene that prolongs the life of a mutant fly

  [D] a preventive medicine that can repair old bodies

39. By stating “science is still a baby”(Para.5) the author probably means________.

  [A] science is full of vitality

  [B] science is still at its primary stage

  [C] science is a failure in genetics

  [D] science is sure to grow

40. Which of the following may be considered as barriers against human longevity?

[A] The economy.

  [B] Science, which is still a baby.

  [C] The limit of the average life span.

  [D] Inevitable aging and death.

 

Passage 3

Directions: There are 5 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Circle the one that best completes the sentence.

Despite Denmark’s manifest virtues, Danes never talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgence of their counrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, “Denmark is a great country.” You are supposed to figure this out for yourself.

It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out life’s inequalities, and there is plenty of money for schools, day care, retraining program, job seminars-Danes love seminars: three days at a study center hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs---there is no Danish Academy to defend against it-----old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. It’s a nation of recyclers----about 55% of Danish garbage gets made into something new……and no nuclear power plants. It’s a nation of tireless planner. Trains run on time. Things operate well in negeral.

Scuh a nation of overachivers-----a brochure from the Ministry of Business and Industry says,” Denmark is one of the world’s cleanest and most organized countries.” With virtually no pollution, crimes, or poverty. Denmark is the most corruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere.” So, of course, one’s heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings, broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slumped in the park:

Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line: town here, country there. It is not a nation of jay-walkers. People stand on the curb and wati for the red light to change, even if it’s 2 a.m and there is not a car in a sight. However, Danes don’t think of themselves as a wainting-at-2-a.m-for-the-green-light people……that’s how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes,but the truth is that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well-maintained.

The orderliness of the society doesn’t mean that Danish lives less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Danes would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society cannot exempt its members from the hazards of life.

But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn’t feel bad for taking what you are entitled to, you are as good as anyone lese. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your jov, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.

41. The author thinks that Danes adopt a_______ attitude towards their county.

  [A] boastful   [B] modest

  [C] deprecating [D] mysterious

42. Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the passage?

  [A] Fondness of foreign culture

  [B] Equality in society

  [C] Linguistic tolerance

  [D] persistence planning

43. The author’s recreation to the statement by the Ministry of Business and Industry is ____.

  [A] disapproving [B] approving

  [C] noncommittal [D] doubtful

44.According to the passage, Danish orderliness_____.

  [A] sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes

  [B] spares Danes social troubles besetting other people

  [C] is considered economically essential to the country

  [D] prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles

45. At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that _______.

  [A] Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits

  [B] Danes take for granted what is given to them

  [C] the open system helps to tide the country over

  [D] orderliness has alleviated unemployment

Passage 4

Directions:  In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.

The railroads played a key role in the settlement of the West. They provided relatively easy access to the region for the first time, and they also actively received farmers to settle there. The railroads are criticized for their part in settling the West too rapidly, with its consequent economic unrest ( After the Civil War vast Great Plains area was settled all at once). Of course, there were abuses connected with building and operating the railroads, but it must be pointed out that they performed a useful service in extending the frontier and helping to achieve national unity.

The real tragedy of the rapid settlement of the Great Plains was the shameful way in which the American Indians were treated. Threatened with the destruction of their whole mode of life, the Indians fought back savagely against the white man’s final thrust. Justice was almost entirely on the Indians’ side. The land was clearly theirs: frequently their title (土地所有权) was legally certified by a treaty negotiated with the federal government.

The Indians, however, lacked the military force and political power to protect this right. Not only did white men intrude the Indians’ hunting grounds, but they rapidly destroyed the Indians’ principal means of existence------the buffalo. It has been estimated that some 15 million buffalo roamed the plains in the 1860s. By 1869 the railroads had cut the herd in half, and by 1875 the southern herd was all but eliminated. By the middle of the 1880s the northern herd was also a thing of the past. Particularly irritating to the Indians was the fact that the white man frequently killed the buffalo merely for sport, leaving the valunable animal to rot in the sun.

The plains Indians were considered different from the Indians encountered by the English colonists on the Atlantic coast. Mounted on horses descended from those brought by the Spanish to Mexico many years before, typical plains Indians were fierce fighters who could shoot arrows with surprising accuracy while galloping at top speed. Although they quickly adapted themselves to the use of the rifle, the Indians were not equal to the firepower of the United States army and thus were doomed to defeat.

46. According to the author, during the settlement of the West the shameful thing is the ______ of the American Indians.

47.The Indians could not protect their right, why?

48. The chief means of the American plains Indians’ existence is ______.

49.The function of building railroads is to _______.

50. What is the point of comparison between plains Indians and the Indians encountered on Atlantic coast?

. Translate the following into Chinese ( 15 marks, each 3 marks)

51. The very act of stepping on this soil, in breathing this air of Hiroshima, was for me a far greater adventure than any trip or any reportorial assignment I’d previously taken.

52. The strangest thing about the use of drugs in sports is the fact that there is no real evidence to show that they can improve athletic performance.

53. We are ripping matter from its place in the earth in such volume as to upset the balance between daylight and darkness.

54. It would be a pity for a man who handed down hundreds of wise decisions from the bench to be remembered only for the one unwise decision he made in Congress.

55. King’s spick-and-span flagship belonged to a different world than the storm-whipped British vessel, where the accommodation ladder was salt-crusted, the camouflage pain was peeling, and even the main battery guns looked pitted and rusty.

.Reading the following text and answer the questions(25 points)

What is wrong with federal criminal-lawmaking is just a specific instance of a general lawmaking pathology identified nearly four decades ago by Judge Friendly. In an essay entitled The Gap in Lawmaking: Judges Who Can’t and Legislators Who Won’t, Friendly described the regulatory disarray that results when Congress occupies a field with statutes that are sufficiently comprehensive to displace inventive common-lawmaking but insufficiently comprehensive to resolve the problems that Congress is trying to regulate. Although Friendly did not apply it to criminal law, his framework fits it to a tee: Congress won’t make law with sufficient specificity to resolve important issues of policy, and judges can’t (or at least perceive that they can’t) remedy this inattention with lawmaking of their own. This lawmaking gap is eventually filled by individual U.S. Attorneys who do effectively make law by adapting vaguely worded statutes to advance their own political interests.

Start with members of Congress who won’t. It is axiomatic that “within our federal constitutional framework the legislative power, including the power to define criminal offenses, resides wholly with the Congress.” But this axiom is also a rank fiction. Anyone who practices or studies federal criminal law knows that the highly general prohibitions that make up Title 18 of the United States Code supply only a trivial fraction of the effective legal rules; the rest are to be found in the case law applying those prohibitions to actual cases.

A few examples should suffice. “Fraud” is a legal concept that is incomplete by design, having been fashioned by equity courts as a general catchall for grossly wrongful or deceptive conduct that evades established common law norms. The concept of “property” also lacks a precise definition that applies across legal contexts. Thus, by incorporating these concepts into a host of important criminal statutes -- including mail and wire fraud, conspiracy to defraud the United States, the National Stolen Property Act, and the federal theft provision – Congress did not so much make law as create a demand for law to be made at some later date. And that is exactly what has happened as these statutes have gradually been extended to scores of discrete forms of wrongdoing – from title washing to insider trading, from misappropriation of confidential information (private and governmental) to public corruption---- that no one believes Congress specifically had in mind when it enacted these laws.

The same story applies to statutes of more recent vintage, such as the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (“RICO”). Congress did little to spell out the forms of organized criminality that this offense is supposed to cover. For example, the statutory definition of “enterprise,” which “includes any individual … and any union or group of individuals associated in fact,” literally excludes nothing from its scope. Other opaque but critical terms, such as “to conduct or participate … in the conduct of” the affairs of an enterprise, lack any statutory definition whatsoever. Congress apparently imagined that RICO would be directed at organized crime bosses and corrupt union chieftains, but the offense that this ill-defined statute has become now extends to violent political protestors, overreaching financiers, and dishonest politicians as well.

What accounts for Congress’ persistent failure to enact complete criminal prohibitions? The explanation is the convergence of two forces, both of which were described by Friendly. The first is political dissensus. In “highly controversial areas,” Friendly wrote, Congress may be deterred from legislating with specificity not by “lack of interest … but [by the] equivalence of conflicting pressures – in which the chessmen have been moved and moved but the game has been a draw.” Highly general or vague statutory language is the predictable outcome of a political stalemate of this sort, because it spares members of Congress from having to take definitive stands that could disappoint powerful constituencies. Congress settled on RICO’s nondefinition of “enterprise,” for example, only after attempts to specify what or two constituted “organized crime” in RICO provoked strong opposition by organized labor, civil libertarians, and other interest groups.

The second force that contributes to unspecific criminal legislation is the press of other legislative business. Just as members of Congress “are too driven to be able to attend to” mundane issues of regulatory policy, so they are too driven to attend to the mundane details of the federal criminal code. To convince the public that their representatives are getting “tough” on crime, it is enough for Congress to enact highly general, or even purely symbolic, legislation. Because they take relatively little time to enact, such highly general statues leave Congress free to focus more attention on appropriations and other noncriminal programs values by the organized interest groups on whose support members depend for reelection.

As Friendly’s account suggests, these dynamics are not peculiar to criminal law. Indeed, they also plausibly explain the low profile role that Congress chooses to play in fields such as labor law and antitrust. There, incompletely specified statutes are understood as implicit delegations of lawmaking power to courts, which have responded by developing robust bodies of “federal common law.” It is tempting to view federal criminal law as a common law field of the same essential character.

What makes such a picture seem at least a bit distorted, however, is that federal judges themselves do not usually see their role this way. This is the “judges who can’t” side of the story. Notwithstanding Congress’ abdication of its criminal-lawmaking responsibilities, courts regularly take the position that they are powerless to read limiting principles into RICO and other broadly worded statutes on the ground that adopting them would infringe on Congress’ exclusive lawmaking prerogatives. Abrams and Beale describe the recurring “pattern”:

Congress is presented with information suggesting that there is a type of large scale crime problem of sufficient magnitude and occurring on a national scale so as to warrant federal intervention through the legislating of a law federal crime.

Congress proceeds to legislate a statute that is drafted in terms that extend more broadly than the kind of large scale criminal activity which was the perceived reason for the legislation. The legislative history is nevertheless replete with statements indicating that the purpose of the statute was to deal with the perceived kind of large scale criminal activity.

Subsequently, a prosecution is brought under the new statute, involving a mundane, local situation rather than the type of large scale criminal activity that was the perceived national crime problem. Because of the absence of limiting language in the statute, the prosecution appears to be a permissible invocation of the statute, and the defendant is convicted. The defendant appeals, claiming that the statute should be limited to the purposes behind the statute as delineated in the legislative history. The court upholds the broad interpretation of the statute, consistent with its actual language, concluding that while the statute was “primarily” aimed at the indicated large scale criminal activity, the plain meaning of its express language is controlling.

Implicit in this account, finally, is the role of individual “U.S. Attorneys who do.” They are the ones deciding to bring open-ended criminal statutes to bear on “mundane, local situation[s]” remote from the perceived exigency that prompted Congress to enact those laws. Because Congress systematically fails to specify the content of criminal statutes, and because courts routinely eschew the authority to give content to those statutes through policy-laden common-lawmaking, U.S. Attorneys exercise effective criminal-lawmaking power by default.

For predictable reasons, U.S Attorneys exercise that power in a way that pushes federal criminal law far beyond the scope of any genuinely federal concern. U.S. Attorneys are extraordinarily ambitious and routinely enter electoral politics after leaving office. Consequently, while in office, they face significant incentives to advance imaginative readings of vague criminal offenses in order to please influential local interests.

Consider Rudolph Giuliani’s notorious insider trading prosecutions. According to Daniel Fischel, Giuliani brought these cases in a self-conscious attempt to court the approval of established Wall Street firms, which were then being routed by Michael Milken and other financial innovators, and which ultimately did supply critical support to Giuliani is open to dispute, the key point is that Congress’ and the courts’ lawmaking abdication makes entrepreneurial behavior by U.S. Attorneys both plausible and predictable.

These dynamics make for law that is as bad in content as it is broad in form. The standard critique of how federal criminal law unfolds focuses on its disregard for notice and other “rule of law” values, a particularly legitimate concern when the law is being applied to malum prohibitum conduct. But giving de facto lawmaking power to individual U.S. Attorneys also undermine important systemic interests at stake in the criminalization of malum prohibitum (法律所禁止的行为) and malum in se (不法行为) conduct alike. Too much federal criminal law can waste governmental resources, chill socially desirable conduct, divest state governments of political vitality, and distort the formation and expression of national moral ideals. Individual U.S. Attorneys do not internalize these costs when they parley their power to enlarge the scope of federal criminal law into personal political benefits. As a result, a body of federal law constructed in large part by individual U.S. Attorneys is certain to disserve important national political interests.

Question 1. In what way does the author of this passage suggest that the Congress abdicate its criminal-lawmaking responsibilities?

Question 2. By saying the “political dissensus”, what does the author intend to convey about the Congress?

Question 3. Why can’t the judges, with lawmaking of their own, remedy the inattention which results from the Congress’s inability to legislate with sufficient specificity to resolve the important issues of policy?

Question 4. How do the U.S. Attorneys exercise effective criminal-lawmaking power by default?

Question 5. How are the individual U.S. Attorneys invested with the de facto interpretive criminal-lawmaking powers and what are the possible consequences?

.Writing (50 points)

Direction: In this part of the test, you are to write an essay upon the given directions in more than 500 words. You are to write clearly, express the ideas logically on the ANSWER SHEET.

Title: Reflections on the Contaminated Milk and Poisoned Drug in China

Outline:

1. The present situations about the contaminates milk and poisoned drug incidents in China

2.The possible causes

3. The countermeasures taken by the government

4.Your reflections

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